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CR
Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered B2ab(v) 
Endangered B2ab(v);D2 
Vulnerable B2ab(v) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2003 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 28.3 - - -
Population justification: On Española, the breeding population was estimated at c.12,000 pairs in 1970-1971, 15,600-18,200 pairs in 1994 and at least 34,694 adults in 2001. On Isla de la Plata, there are probably fewer than 10-20 pairs.
Trend justification: Awkerman (2006) showed that adult survival declined between 1999 and 2004. These findings were supported by Anderson et al. (2008). There is further evidence to suggest that the population declined between 1994 and 2007 (e.g. counts at Punta Suarez - Punta Cevallos from Anderson et al. 2002, 2008), however counts provide lower quality data than the mark-recapture estimates of annual survival (D. Anderson in litt. 2006). Based on this information, the population is estimated to have declined by 1-19 % over the last 84 years.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Chile Native Extant   Yes    
Colombia Native Extant     Yes  
Ecuador Native Extant     Yes  
Panama Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Peru Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría site factsheet
Ecuador Isla de la Plata site factsheet
Ecuador Isla Española site factsheet
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluct Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phoebastria irrorata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Diomedeidae (Albatrosses)
Species name author (Salvin, 1883)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species