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Black-vented Shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2ce;B2ab(i,ii,iii,v) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass 408 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,170,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 280 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 160000 medium Estimated 2004
Population trend Unknown poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.3 - - -
Population justification: The total population is around 80,000 pairs, and therefore estimated here at 160,000 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 200,000-250,000 total individuals.
Trend justification: The species declined dramatically owing to predation, in particular by introduced cats. However, eradication of these from its principal breeding island, Natividad, suggests that immediate threats to the species have now been significantly reduced and recruitment to the population may increase. Bycatch in fisheries remains a threat but its impacts are unknown.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Mexico Native Extant Yes      
USA Native Extant   Yes    

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Donkey (Equus asinus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Goat (Capra hircus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Excess energy / Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Puffinus opisthomelas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author Coues, 1864
Population size 160000 mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,170,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species