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Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,960,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18 - - -
Population justification: Figures point to a total of 15,337-30,519 pairs equating to 46,000-92,000 individuals based on a population assessment covering the species's entire range (Derhé 2012). This corresponds with preliminary counts conducted during the non-breeding season at the Black Sea in which up to 75,000 individuals have been sighted migrating through the Bosporus [J. Tavares and D. Sahin. in litt. 2012]). However, more surveys are needed to confirm to confirm this number, particularly in Turkey.
Trend justification: Extremely low breeding success has been reported at several important colonies, particularly in Italy (Baccetti et al. 2009), as well as adult survival probabilities (across the western Mediterranean) that are currently too low to maintain stable populations (Oppel et al. 2011). There is evidence of both recent and historical colony extinctions, with ten colonies having been reported extinct in the last 60 years (Bourgeois and Vidal 2008, N. Baccetti in litt.2011). The trends of populations in Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Turkey and Tunisia are currently unknown, but declines are suspected in Croatia (for at least one colony [I. Budinski in litt. 2011]) and Greece (based on long-term trends [J. Fric in litt. 2011]). It has been reported that the species is declining in Italy by 10-50% over 13 years (N. Baccetti in litt. 2011), in France by 6% per year (Oppel et al. 2011) and in Malta by 0-15% over 9 years (Borg and Sultana 2002, Raine et al. 2009, Sultana et al. 2011). In total, these three countries represent around three-quarters of the global population. By combining data for these three countries it is predicted that, if the species continues to decline at the current reported rate, the global breeding population will decrease by more than 30% in the next 54 years, i.e. three generations (Derhé 2012).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant       Yes
Austria Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Egypt Native Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Georgia Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Israel Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malta Native Extant       Yes
Monaco Unknown Extant        
Montenegro Unknown Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Romania Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant     Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes    
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Unknown Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Bakarlaka site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Galata site factsheet
Bulgaria Kaliakra site factsheet
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Croatia Lastovo archipelago site factsheet
Greece Gulf of Kavala and marine region of Thasos island site factsheet
Greece Ios, Sikinos, Folegandros island group site factsheet
Greece Makronisos channel site factsheet
Greece Mikres Kyklades site factsheet
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area site factsheet
Greece Nestou delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece North and north-east Thasos island site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos site factsheet
Greece Sirna island and nearby islets site factsheet
Greece South Evvoïkos Gulf site factsheet
Greece Western Lesvos marine region site factsheet
Malta Comino island site factsheet
Malta Dwejra Bay to San Dimitri Point site factsheet
Malta Ic-Cnus to Tal-Bardan Cliffs site factsheet
Malta il-Kullana to ta' Gifen Cliffs site factsheet
Malta Malta-Gozo Channel site factsheet
Malta Rdum Tal-Madonna site factsheet
Malta Ta'Cenc cliffs site factsheet
Malta West of il-Hagra s-Sewda to ix-Xaqqa Cliffs site factsheet
Malta West of Wied ix-Xaqqa to Wied Maqbyl Cliffs site factsheet
Malta Xlendi Bay to Wardija Point Cliffs site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters site factsheet
Spain Mar del Empordà site factsheet
Turkey Bosphorus site factsheet
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands site factsheet
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Geological events Avalanches/landslides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluct Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Fuel Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Puffinus yelkouan. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author (Acerbi, 1827)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,960,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species