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Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 53,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.5 - - -
Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 350,000-390,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,050,000-1,170,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Brooke (2004) also estimated the global population to be at least 1,000,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The population trend is decreasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Angola Vagrant Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Australia Vagrant Extant        
Austria Vagrant Extant        
Barbados Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Belize Vagrant Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes      
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
Costa Rica Vagrant Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant        
Cuba Vagrant Extant        
Denmark Native Extant     Yes  
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
French Guiana Native Extant        
Gambia Unknown Extant        
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Ghana Vagrant Extant        
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant        
Guinea Unknown Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Unknown Extant        
Iceland Native Extant Yes      
Ireland Native Extant Yes      
Liberia Native Extant        
Mauritania Vagrant Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant        
New Zealand Vagrant Extant        
Nigeria Vagrant Extant        
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Panama Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Senegal Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Unknown Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant        
St Helena (to UK) Unknown Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Vagrant Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy site factsheet
Iceland Vestmannaeyjar site factsheet
Ireland Blasket Islands site factsheet
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun) site factsheet
Ireland Lambay Island site factsheet
Ireland Puffin Island site factsheet
Ireland The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig site factsheet
United Kingdom Copeland Islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli site factsheet
United Kingdom Rum site factsheet
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Puffinus puffinus. Downloaded from on 01/09/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/09/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author (Brünnich, 1764)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 53,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment