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Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 53,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.5 - - -
Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 350,000-390,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,050,000-1,170,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Brooke (2004) also estimated the global population to be at least 1,000,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The population trend is decreasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola Vagrant Extant      
Argentina Native Extant      
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Barbados Vagrant Extant      
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Belize Vagrant Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant Yes    
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
Costa Rica Vagrant Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant      
Cuba Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant      
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
France Native Extant     Yes
French Guiana Native Extant      
Gambia Unknown Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Ghana Vagrant Extant      
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant      
Guinea Unknown Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Unknown Extant      
Iceland Native Extant Yes    
Ireland Native Extant Yes    
Liberia Native Extant      
Mauritania Vagrant Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Vagrant Extant      
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Panama Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Portugal Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Senegal Native Extant      
Sierra Leone Unknown Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant      
St Helena (to UK) Unknown Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes   Yes
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    
Venezuela Native Extant      
Western Sahara Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy site factsheet
United Kingdom Copeland Islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli site factsheet
United Kingdom Rum site factsheet
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Puffinus puffinus. Downloaded from on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Procellariidae (Petrels and shearwaters)
Species name author (Br
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 53,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species