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White-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 44,800,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 3,300 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3000000 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 24.7 - - -
Population justification: A global population of 1,200,000 breeding pairs, down from 1,430,000 pairs in the 1980s, is estimated based on figures from 1985- 2011. This equates to an estimated global population of c.3 million mature individuals, based on the estimated number of breeding pairs extrapolated according to a ratio from Brooke (2004).
Trend justification: A decline is inferred from a drop in burrow occupancy of 28% over 20 years on Bird Island, South Georgia (Berrow et al. 2000), and declines of 86% during 1981-1993 at sea in Prydz Bay, Antarctica (Woehler 1996). Population monitoring on Marion Island between 1996-1997 and 1999-2000 recorded a 14.5% per annum decrease in the population. Data from the Crozet archipelago indicate a 37% decline in breeding pairs between 1983 and 2004, based on population models and field estimates from two surveys (Barbraud et al. in litt. 2008). Data from fisheries and a population model suggest that the population on the Kerguelen Islands may also be in decline (Barbraud et al. 2009). Data from at-sea surveys suggest a 35% decline in the Southern Indian Ocean during 1981- 2007 (Péron et al. 2010a). Trend analysis from 1980-2054 (three generations, 74 years) predicts a 45% decline (BirdLife International unpublished data). For colonies without new data, this analysis assumed a stable population, however there is a need for more data, particularly from Kerguelen, as if this population were shown to be stable rather than increasing as is currently reported (200,000 pairs in 1987 and 234,000 in 2005, ACAP 2012), the overall rate of decline may be significantly higher. It is likely that 1987 figures are rough estimates, so new count data from Kerguelen to accurately assess the direction of population trends are required.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Antarctica Native Extant   Yes    
Argentina Native Extant   Yes    
Australia Native Extant Yes      
Bouvet Island (to Norway) Unknown Extant        
Brazil Native Extant   Yes    
Chile Native Extant   Yes    
Ecuador Unknown Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant       Yes
French Southern Territories Native Extant Yes      
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Native Extant   Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant   Yes    
Mozambique Native Extant   Yes    
Namibia Native Extant   Yes    
New Zealand Native Extant Yes      
Peru Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant Yes      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant Yes      
St Helena (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Antarctica Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 38 - Marine site factsheet
Antarctica Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 45 - Marine site factsheet
Antarctica Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 46 - Marine site factsheet
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur site factsheet
Argentina Islas Malvinas site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Kidney Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est site factsheet
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas site factsheet
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks site factsheet
Uruguay Atlantic Ocean and Rio de la Plata mouth site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Procellaria aequinoctialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size 3000000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 44,800,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species