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LC
Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 1994. The taxonomy and species of birds of Australia and its territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, Melbourne.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Distribution and population
The Great-winged Petrel breeds in the Southern Hemisphere between 30 and 50 degrees south with colonies on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island (St Helena to UK), the Crozet Islands and Kerguelen Islands (French Southern Territories) the Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), and on the coasts of southern Australia and northern New Zealand. Outside the breeding season it dispereses widely in subtropical parts of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, mainly between 25 and 50 degrees south, though some birds will stray into the Antarctic zone (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Population justification
Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to exceed 1,500,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Ecology
This marine species is highly pelagic and has a widespread but sparse distribution at sea. It feeds mostly on squid, with some fish and crustaceans, most of which it obtains by dipping and surface-seizing. It feeds mainly at night and may locate some cephalopods by their bioluminescence. It can occasionally be seen following cetaceans and will associate with other Procellariiformes. Breeding occurs in winter, starting in April, nesting being either solitary or in small colonies on oceanic islands on ridges, slopes or flat ground. Breeding usually occurs below 400 m, but has been recorded as high as 1400 m on Tristan de Cunha. It nests in burrows or above ground in rock crevices, among tree roots or under scrub (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

References
Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pterodroma macroptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Procellariidae (Petrels and shearwaters)
Species name author (Smith, 1840)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 58,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species