This species is classified as Vulnerable owing to its very small breeding range, in which it is susceptible to to human impacts and stochastic events. Confirmation that introduced predators are causing a decline would result in an uplisting to Critically Endangered.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
43 cm. Large, grey-and-white petrel. Black cap extends to below eyes while white of throat may extend up behind eyes, enhancing capped appearance. Grey upperparts and upperwing, with black "M" across wings. Base of grey tail can show whitish horseshoe. White underparts. White underwing with narrow black trailing edge, black tip, narrow black edge to leading edge distal to carpal joint and then short, bolder, black bar extending from joint towards centre of wing. Similar spp. Larger than overlapping Stejneger's Petrel P. longirostris, and has different underwing pattern. Hawaiian Petrel P. sandwichensis has darker cap and more extensive black on underwing.
Au, D. W. K.; Pitman, R. L. 1986. Seabird interactions with dolphins and tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific. Condor 88: 304-317.
Ballance, L. T.; Pitman, R. L.; Reilly, S. B. 1997. Seabird community structure along a productivity gradient: importance of competition and energetic constraint. Ecology 78: 1502-1518.
Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Carboneras, C. 1992. Procellariidae (Petrels and Shearwaters). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 216-257. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Hodum, P.; Wainstein, M. 2003. Biology and conservation of the Juan Fernadez seabirds community.
Hulm, P. 1995. Robinson Crusoe's Islands face an uncertain future. Plant Talk: 19-21.
Patterson, R. M. 1996. RAOU records appraisal committee: opinions and case summaries 1992-1995. Submission no. 168. RAOU Report 101.
Schlatter, R. P. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in Chile. In: Croxall, J.P.; Evans, P.G.H.; Schreiber, R.W. (ed.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds, pp. 261-269. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Clay, R., Lascelles, B., Temple, H.
Brooke, M., Torres-Mura, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Pterodroma externa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/07/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/07/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Family||Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)|
|Species name author||(Salvin, 1875)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||44,100,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|