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White-winged Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable B2ab(v);D2 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 49,300,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 20 medium
Number of locations 7 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000-14000 poor Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 3,000-21,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 2,000-14,000 mature individuals (V. Bretagnolle in litt. 1999, 2000; Garnet and Crowley 2000, Priddel and Carlile 2007).
Trend justification: There are no data on population trends in caledonica, and although leucoptera is now stable the species is suspected to be declining overall, owing mainly to predation of nesting adults and chicks.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
American Samoa Native Extant   Yes    
Antarctica Vagrant Extant        
Australia Native Extant Yes      
Cook Islands Native Extant   Yes    
Ecuador Unknown Extant        
Fiji Unknown Extant        
French Polynesia Native Extant Yes      
Kiribati Unknown Extant        
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant Yes      
New Zealand Native Extant   Yes    
Niue (to New Zealand) Native Extant   Yes    
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Native Extant   Yes    
Peru Native Extant   Yes    
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Samoa Unknown Extant        
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Unknown Extant        
Tonga Unknown Extant        
Tuvalu Unknown Extant        
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Unknown Extant        
Vanuatu Unknown Extant        
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Cabbage Tree and Boondelbah Islands site factsheet
French Polynesia Pentes du mont Hiro de Raivavae site factsheet
High Seas Pacific, Eastern Central 11 - Marine site factsheet
High Seas Pacific, Eastern Central 12 - Marine site factsheet
High Seas Pacific, Eastern Central 9 - Marine site factsheet
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 12 - Marine site factsheet
Kiribati Pacific, Eastern Central 13 - Marine site factsheet
New Caledonia (to France) Dent de Saint-Vincent site factsheet
New Caledonia (to France) Massifs du Grand Sud - entre le mont Humboldt et la rivière Bleue site factsheet
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Pacific, Eastern Central 10 - Marine site factsheet
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll Marine site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Birdcatcher Tree (Pisonia umbellifera) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Pig (Sus domesticus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Excess energy / Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pterodroma leucoptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author (Gould, 1844)
Population size 2000-14000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 49,300,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species