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White-necked Petrel Pterodroma cervicalis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable D2 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 67,200,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations 3 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000 medium Unknown 1988
Population trend Increasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 100000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.6 - - -
Population justification: The total population has been estimated at c.100,000 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 150,000 total individuals.
Trend justification: The population is thought to be increasing (Brooke 2004).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
American Samoa Native Extant   Yes    
Australia Native Extant   Yes    
Cook Islands Native Extant   Yes    
Fiji Native Extant   Yes    
French Polynesia Native Extant   Yes    
French Southern Territories Unknown Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant   Yes    
Kiribati Unknown Extant        
Marshall Islands Unknown Extant        
Mexico Native Extant   Yes    
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Nauru Unknown Extant        
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
New Zealand Native Extant Yes      
Niue (to New Zealand) Native Extant   Yes    
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Native Extant Yes      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Papua New Guinea Unknown Extant        
Samoa Unknown Extant        
Solomon Islands Unknown Extant        
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Unknown Extant        
Tonga Unknown Extant        
Tuvalu Unknown Extant        
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant   Yes    
Vanuatu Native Extant Yes      
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Phillip Island (Norfolk Island) site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Goat (Capra hircus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pterodroma cervicalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author (Salvin, 1891)
Population size 100000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 67,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species