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Southern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Distribution and population
This species breeds along the coast of Antarctica and outlying islands, including the South Sandwich Islands (Islas Sandwich del Sur), South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Bouvet Island (to Norway) and Peter Island. At sea it can range as far north as the coats of South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and South America up to central Chile and southern Brazil1.

Population justification
Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number around 4,000,000 individuals.

Trend justification
There are no data to suggest major changes over recent years (Brooke 2004).

Ecology
This marine species is usually assoaciated with cold waters fringing the ice pack. It feeds mostly on crustaceans, fish and cephalopods with the proportion of each varying locally. Most food is taken by surface-seizing whilst in flocks. It attends trawlers and will take galley refuse from ships. Breeding begins in November and it is highly colonial, breeding on steep rocky slopes and precipitous cliffs on sheltered ledges or in hollows. It is a migratory species, ranging widely over the Southern Ocean (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H. 2006. Antarctic birds breed later in response to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(16): 6248-6251.

Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Jenouvrier, S.; Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H. 2003. Effects of climate variability on the temporal population dynamics of Southern Fulmars. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 576-587.

Weimerskirch, H.; Inchausti, P.; Guinet, C.; Barbraud, C. 2003. Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science 15: 249-256.

Further web sources of information
Additional information is available on the distribution of the Southern Fulmar from the Global Procellariiform Tracking Database (http://www.seabirdtracking.org)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Newton, P., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Fulmarus glacialoides. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Southern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialoides) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author (Smith, 1840)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 97,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species