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LC
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 30.7 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.2,800,000-4,400,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.8,400,000-13,200,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so an initial estimate of the global population size is c.15,000,000-50,000,000 individuals. However, del Hoyo et al (1992) estimated the global population to number 8,000,000-32,000,000 individuals and Brooke (2004) estimated the global breeding population to number around 7,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 21,000,000 individuals. Hence a revised global estimate is 15,000,000-30,000,000. National population estimates include: c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and >c.10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant      
Bahamas Vagrant Extant      
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Canada Native Extant Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant     Yes
Germany Native Extant      
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Iceland Native Extant      
Ireland Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Slovenia Vagrant Extant      
Spain Vagrant Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes    
Sweden Native Extant      
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Baillarge Bay site factsheet
Canada Buchan Gulf site factsheet
Canada Cape Searle site factsheet
Canada Cape Vera site factsheet
Canada Hobhouse Inlet site factsheet
Canada Prince Leopold Island site factsheet
Canada Reid Bay site factsheet
Canada Scott Inlet site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy site factsheet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar site factsheet
Iceland Látrabjarg site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Commander islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Iony island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Olyutorskiy cape - Irina cape site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyuleniy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Utashud island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Yamsk archipelago site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island) site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island site factsheet
United Kingdom Foula site factsheet
United Kingdom St Kilda site factsheet
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 174W59N site factsheet
USA Chagulak Island Marine site factsheet
USA St George Island Marine site factsheet
USA St Matthew & Hall Islands Colonies site factsheet
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Fulmarus glacialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Procellariidae (Petrels and shearwaters)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1761)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 28,800,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species