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LC
Arctic Loon Gavia arctica

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,910,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.280,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant   Yes    
Algeria Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Vagrant Extant        
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant     Yes Yes
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Georgia Native Extant   Yes    
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes    
Hungary Native Extant   Yes    
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant       Yes
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Mexico Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Monaco Unknown Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes    
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Poland Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Russia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Serbia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes      
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Denmark Eastern German Bight site factsheet
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt site factsheet
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat site factsheet
Finland Kitka lake site factsheet
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake site factsheet
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi site factsheet
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes site factsheet
Ireland Inner Galway Bay site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Netherlands North Sea north of the Wadden Sea site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Holmöarna archipelago site factsheet
Sweden Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien site factsheet
Sweden Tarnan-Riala forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Assynt Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Assynt Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Inverpolly, Loch Urigill and Nearby Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Inverpolly, Loch Urigill and nearby lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Knapdale Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Lairg and Strathbora Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Maree site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Maree and Nearby Lochs and Mountains site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Shiel site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Shin and Nearby Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Stack, Loch nam Brac and Nearby Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Stack, Loch Nam Brac and nearby lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh site factsheet
United Kingdom Rannoch Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom West Inverness-shire Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Wester Ross Lochs site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gavia arctica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Gaviidae (Loons/Divers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 18,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species