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LC
Arctic Loon Gavia arctica

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,890,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,890,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.280,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Vagrant Extant      
Armenia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Native Extant   Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant     Yes
Belgium Native Extant   Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes  
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes
Estonia Native Extant     Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes
Georgia Native Extant   Yes  
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes  
Hungary Native Extant   Yes  
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Vagrant Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Mexico Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant   Yes Yes
Monaco Unknown Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes  
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes  
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant     Yes
Poland Native Extant   Yes Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes  
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
South Korea Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant   Yes  
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes    
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Denmark Eastern German Bight site factsheet
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt site factsheet
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat site factsheet
Finland Kitka lake site factsheet
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake site factsheet
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi site factsheet
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Netherlands North Sea north of the Wadden Sea site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Tarnan-Riala forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Assynt Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Assynt Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Inverpolly, Loch Urigill and nearby lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Inverpolly, Loch Urigill and Nearby Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Knapdale Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Lairg and Strathbora Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Maree site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Maree and Nearby Lochs and Mountains site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Shiel site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Shin and Nearby Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Stack, Loch Nam Brac and nearby lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Stack, Loch nam Brac and Nearby Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh site factsheet
United Kingdom Rannoch Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom West Inverness-shire Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Wester Ross Lochs site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gavia arctica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Gaviidae (Loons or divers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,890,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species