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Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,660,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,786,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 1998
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Population justification: The world population is estimated at 1.3 million pairs: 950,000 along the Argentinian coast, at least 100,000 in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and at least 200,000 in Chile.
Trend justification: Overall population declines are thought to have been moderately rapid during the past three generations (27 years).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica Vagrant Extant      
Argentina Native Extant Yes    
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Brazil Native Extant   Yes  
Chile Native Extant Yes    
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant Yes    
New Zealand Vagrant Extant      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Vagrant Extant      
Uruguay Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Argentina Cabo Vírgenes site factsheet
Argentina Canal Beagle site factsheet
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos site factsheet
Argentina Complejo Punta Tombo - Punta Atlas site factsheet
Argentina Estuario del Río Coyle site factsheet
Argentina Estuario del Río Gallegos site factsheet
Argentina Isla de los Estados, Islas de Año Nuevo e islotes adyacentes site factsheet
Argentina Islas Malvinas site factsheet
Argentina Norte del Golfo San Jorge site factsheet
Argentina Parque Nacional Monte León site factsheet
Argentina Península Mitre site factsheet
Argentina Península y Bahía de San Julián site factsheet
Argentina Playa Punta Mogotes y Puerto de Mar del Plata site factsheet
Argentina Punta Gutierrez - Bahía Camarones site factsheet
Argentina Ría Deseado e islas adyacentes site factsheet
Argentina San Antonio Oeste site factsheet
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés site factsheet
Argentina Villa marítima El Cóndor site factsheet
Chile Bahía Chilota, Porvenir site factsheet
Chile Guabún site factsheet
Chile Isla Doña Sebastiana Punta Chocoi y Roqueríos adyacentes site factsheet
Chile Isla Guafo site factsheet
Chile Isla Magdalena site factsheet
Chile Isla Magdalena National Park site factsheet
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo site factsheet
Chile Isla Tucker site factsheet
Chile Islote Huentellao site factsheet
Chile Laguna San Rafael National Park site factsheet
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Contramaestre site factsheet
Chile Monumento Natural Pingüineras de Puñihuil site factsheet
Chile Patranca Island site factsheet
Chile Pingüinera del Seno Otway site factsheet
Chile Pucatrihue site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beaver Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bertha's Beach, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bleaker Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bull Point, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Elephant Cays Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hope Harbour, West Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Jason Islands Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Keppel Island site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Kidney Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Lively Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Pebble Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Saunders Island site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Sea Lion Islands Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Seal Bay, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Speedwell Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Volunteer Point, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) West Point Island Group site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 70 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluct Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified rats (Rattus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Spheniscus magellanicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Spheniscidae (Penguins)
Species name author (Forster, 1781)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,660,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species