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This species is listed as Endangered because it is confined to a very small range when breeding, in which its forest/scrub habitat has declined in quality. Its population has undergone extreme fluctuations and is now thought to be in overall decline.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
65 cm. Medium-sized penguin with pale yellow eye. Pale yellow head with black feather shafts. Band of bright yellow from eyes around back of head. Juvenile has greyer head with no band. Similar spp. Distinctive from other crested penguins in range. Voice Slightly musical compared to other penguin species.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Boessenkool, S.; Austin, J. J.; Worthy, T. H.; Scofield, P.; Cooper, A.; Seddon, P. J.; Waters, J. M. 2008. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 276: 815-821.
Darby, J. T. 2003. The yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) on Stewart and Codfish Islands. Notornis 50: 148-154.
Ellis, S.; Croxall, J. P.; Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.
Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Hill, S.L., Reid, K., Thorpe, S.E., Hinke, J. and Watters, G.M. 2007. A compilation of parameters for ecosystem dynamics models of the Scotia Sea - Antarctic Peninsula region. CCAMLR Science 14: 1-25.
Houston, D. 2005. Diphtheritic stomatitis in yellow-eyed penguins. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 32: 263-271.
King, S. 2008. Year four: breeding success of yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island and offshore islands. 2005â€“2008. Yellow-eyed PenguinTrust, Dunedin.
Lalas, C.; Ratz, H.; McEwan, K.; McConkey, S. D. 2007. Predation by New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) as a threat to the viability of Yellow-eyed Penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) at Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Biological Conservation 135: 235-246.
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Massaro M. and Blair D. 2003. Comparison of population numbers of yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes, on Stewart Island and on adjacent cat-free islands. N. Z. J. Ecol. 27: 107-113.
McClung, M. R.; Seddon, P. J.; Massaro, M.; Setiawan, A. N. 2004. Nature-based tourism impacts on yellow-eyed penguins Megadyptes antipodes: does unregulated visitor access affect fledging weight and juvenile survival? Biological Conservation 119: 279-285.
McKinlay B. 2001. Hoiho (Megadyptes antipodes) recovery plan, 2000â€“2005. Threatened species recovery plan 35. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
Moore, P. J. 1992. Breeding biology of the Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes on Campbell Island. Emu 92: 157-162.
Moore, P. J. 2001. Historical records of Yellow-eyed Penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) in southern New Zealand. Notornis 48: 145-156.
Rance, C. 1995. Tragedy at Te Rere. Forest and Bird 25: 22-23.
Seddon, P. J.; Davis, L. S. 1989. Nest-site selection by Yellow-eyed Penguins. Condor 91: 653-659.
Taylor, G. A. 2000. Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
van Heezik, Y. 1990. Seasonal, geographical and age-related variations in the diet of the Yellow-eyed Penguin (Megadyptes antipodes). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 17: 201-212.
Williams, T. D. 1995. The penguins Spheniscidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Calvert, R., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J.
Houston, D., McKinlay, B.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Megadyptes antipodes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Endangered|
|Species name author||(Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841)|
|Population size||3500-4200 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||-|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|