This species qualifies as Vulnerable because the global population appears to have declined rapidly over the last three generations (36 years). The primary drivers of declines are uncertain but could include climatic variation and competition for food from commercial fisheries.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
71 cm. Large, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. Black upperparts. White underparts. Dark grey to black head and cheeks. Long yellow, orange and black plumes project from forehead patch back along crown and droop behind eye. Similar spp. E. chrysolophus and Royal Penguin E. schlegeli are the only crested penguins with crests that meet on the forehead. E. schlegeli has pure white to pale grey cheeks, but light-faced E. chrysolophus are also reported at some sites (although it is not known whether these are local mutations or hybrids).
Bost, C. A.; Thiebot, J. B.; Pinaud, D.; Cherel, Y.; Trathan, P. N. 2009. Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the Macaroni Penguin. Biology Letters 5: 473-476.
Cooper, J.; Crawford, R. J. M.; De Villiers, M. S.; Dyer, B. M.; Hofmeyr, G. J. G.; Jonker, A. 2009. Disease outbreaks among penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island: A conservation concern. Marine Ornithology 37: 193â€“196.
Crawford, R. J. M.; Whittington, P. A.; Upfold, L.; Ryan, P. G.; Petersen, S. L.; Dyer, B. M.; Cooper, J. 2009. Recent trends in numbers of four species of penguins at the Prince Edward Islands. African Journal of Marine Science 31(3): 419-426.
Cresswell, K. A.; Wiedenmann, J.; Mangel, M. 2008. Can Macaroni Penguins keep up with climate- and fishing-induced changes in krill? Polar Biology 31: 641-649.
Crossin, G. T., Trathan, P. and Crawford, R. J. M. 2013. Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and Royal Penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli). In: P. G. Borboroglu and P. D. Boersma (eds), Penguins: Natural History and Conservation, pp. 185-208. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Ellis, S.; Croxall, J. P.; Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Trathan, P. N.; Croxall, J. P.; Murphy, E. J.; Everson, I. 1998. Use of at-sea distribution data to derive potential foraging ranges of macaroni penguins during the breeding season. Marine Ecology Progress Series 169: 263-275.
U.S. Fish and Wildlie Service. 2008. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Four Penguin Species as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act and Proposed Rule To List the Southern Rockhopper Penguin in the Campbell Plateau Portion of Its Range. Federal Register.
Woehler, E. J. 1993. The distribution and abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic penguins. Scientific Commission on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, U.K.
Woehler, E. J.; Croxall, J. P. 1999. The status and trends of Antarctic and subantarctic seabirds. Marine Ornithology 25: 43-66.
Further web sources of information
Australian Govt - Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 - Recovery Outline
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Calvert, R., Capper, D., Ekstrom, J., McClellan, R., Stattersfield, A., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
Crawford, R., Croxall, J., Micol, T., Nisbet, I. & Weimerskirsch, H.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Eudyptes chrysolophus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/01/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/01/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Species name author||(Brandt, 1837)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||7,400 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|