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Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2be+3be+4be 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,400 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 26,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7 - - -
Population justification: Population trends are difficult to establish because of large year-to-year fluctuations in the size of the breeding population, however, it is believed that several populations have experienced significant declines in the past. The global population was estimated at 314,000 breeding pairs (Woehler 1993), however, a more recent estimate of 387,000 pairs suggests that the population may be increasing, particularly in the south of its range (Lynch 2012).
Trend justification: Populations on sub-Antarctic islands are thought to have decreased substantially, although fluctuations make it difficult to ascertain long-term trends.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica Native Extant Yes    
Argentina Native Extant      
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Bouvet Island (to Norway) Unknown Extant      
Chile Native Extant   Yes  
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant Yes    
French Southern Territories Native Extant Yes    
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Native Extant Yes    
New Zealand Vagrant Extant      
South Africa Vagrant Extant Yes    
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant Yes    
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Antarctica Ardley Island, King George Island site factsheet
Antarctica Cuverville Island site factsheet
Antarctica Duroch Islands site factsheet
Antarctica Harmony Point, Nelson Island site factsheet
Antarctica Islet south of Gerlache Island, Palmer Archipelago site factsheet
Antarctica Petermann Island site factsheet
Antarctica Southern Powell Island and adjacent islands site factsheet
Antarctica Yankee Harbour, Greenwich Island site factsheet
Argentina Canal Beagle site factsheet
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur site factsheet
Argentina Islas Malvinas site factsheet
Argentina Islas Sandwich del Sur site factsheet
Australia Macquarie Island site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beauchêne Island site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beaver Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bertha's Beach, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bleaker Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bull Point, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hope Harbour, West Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Jason Islands Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Keppel Island site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Lively Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Passage Islands Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Pebble Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Saunders Island site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Sea Lion Islands Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Seal Bay, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Speedwell Island Group site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Volunteer Point, East Falkland site factsheet
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) West Point Island Group site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île Foch, Île Sainte Lanne Gramont and Île Howe site factsheet
French Southern Territories Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny site factsheet
French Southern Territories Péninsule Courbet site factsheet
French Southern Territories Péninsule Rallier du Baty site factsheet
French Southern Territories Southern coast of Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc site factsheet
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Heard and McDonald Islands site factsheet
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks site factsheet
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Fuel Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pygoscelis papua. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Spheniscidae (Penguins)
Species name author (Forster, 1781)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 31,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species