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LC
King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,900 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -
Trend justification: This species is increasing in number at many colonies. It has re-colonised areas where it was previously exterminated (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Antarctica Vagrant Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Australia Vagrant Extant        
Bouvet Island (to Norway) Unknown Extant        
Brazil Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Chile Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant        
French Southern Territories Native Extant Yes      
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Native Extant Yes      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant        
South Africa Vagrant Extant Yes      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant Yes      
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Uruguay Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur site factsheet
Australia Macquarie Island site factsheet
French Southern Territories Baie Larose site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est site factsheet
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession site factsheet
French Southern Territories Péninsule Courbet site factsheet
French Southern Territories Péninsule Rallier du Baty site factsheet
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Heard and McDonald Islands site factsheet
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Shrubland Subantarctic suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Rabbits (Macqurie island, Kergueln I.) and rodents (Fau Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality, Othe

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Fuel Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aptenodytes patagonicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Spheniscidae (Penguins)
Species name author Miller, 1778
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 24,900 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species