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Christmas Frigatebird Fregata andrewsi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,v) 
Endangered A2bcde+3cde;B2ab(ii,iii,v);D2 
Vulnerable A2bcde+3cde;B2ab(ii,iii,v) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2400-4800 good Estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.5 - - -
Population justification: The most recent population census indicates a population of 2,400-4,800 mature individuals (D. James in litt. 2003), roughly equivalent to 3,600-7,200 individuals in total.
Trend justification: A historical review suggests that the population declined by around 66% over the last three generations (James 2003), apparently owing to habitat clearance and dust fallout from phosphate mining, marine pollution, over-fishing and bycatch in fishing gear. These declines are projected to continue, and while the introduced yellow crazy ant has not yet been shown to adversely affect frigatebird colonies it undoubtedly represents a serious future threat.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Australia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Brunei Native Extant       Yes
Cambodia Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant Yes      
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant       Yes
India Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Japan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Malaysia Native Extant       Yes
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Singapore Native Extant   Yes    
Sri Lanka Native Extant       Yes
Thailand Native Extant       Yes
Timor-Leste Native Extant       Yes
Vietnam Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cambodia Koh Tang Archipelago site factsheet
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Dua site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Rambut site factsheet
Indonesia Ujung Kulon site factsheet
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay site factsheet
Malaysia Mantanani islands site factsheet
Malaysia Sipadan islands site factsheet
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area site factsheet
Malaysia Tempasuk plains site factsheet
Thailand Hat Nopharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi site factsheet
Timor-Leste Areia Branca beach and hinterland site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Fregata andrewsi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Species name author Mathews, 1914
Population size 2400-4800 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species