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Greater Frigatebird Fregata minor

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,800 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 107,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.2 - - -
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa Native Extant      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant   Yes  
Australia Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Cambodia Unknown Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant      
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Native Extant Yes    
Colombia Native Extant      
Comoros Native Extant      
Cook Islands Unknown Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
El Salvador Unknown Extant      
Fiji Native Extant   Yes  
French Polynesia Native Extant      
French Southern Territories Unknown Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Unknown Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kiribati Unknown Extant      
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Native Extant Yes    
Mauritius Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant Yes    
Mozambique Native Extant      
Nauru Native Extant   Yes  
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Nicaragua Unknown Extant      
Niue (to New Zealand) Unknown Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant Yes    
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Palau Native Extant Yes    
Panama Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Papua New Guinea Unknown Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Unknown Extant      
Réunion (to France) Native Extant Yes    
Samoa Unknown Extant      
Seychelles Native Extant Yes    
Singapore Unknown Extant      
Solomon Islands Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Helena (to UK) Unknown Extant      
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes  
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Unknown Extant      
Tonga Native Extant      
Tuvalu Unknown Extant      
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    
Vanuatu Native Extant      
Vietnam Unknown Extant      
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Vagrant Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez site factsheet
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Manuk site factsheet
Seychelles Aldabra atoll site factsheet
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 150 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Fregata minor. Downloaded from on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 24,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species