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Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(i,ii);D1 
Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2007 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 96,800 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 249,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 800-1200 good Estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 800-1200 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -
Population justification: The total population is estimated to number 800-1,200 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,200-1,800 individuals in total. This is based on estimates of 650-800 birds in Assam, India, plus 150-200 birds in Cambodia, as well as at least 156 birds in Bihar state, India, which may have dispersed from the Assam population.
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be decreasing very rapidly, in line with levels of direct exploitation and habitat destruction, particularly lowland deforestation and the felling of nest-trees, and drainage, conversion, pollution and over-exploitation of wetlands. Given the species's longevity, population trends are measured over a three-generation period of 45 years and hence the impacts have been severe.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Native Extant Yes      
India Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Possibly Extinct        
Myanmar Native Possibly Extinct        
Nepal Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extinct        
Thailand Native Extant   Yes    
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries) site factsheet
Bangladesh Teknaf Game Reserve site factsheet
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla site factsheet
Cambodia Chhep site factsheet
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru site factsheet
Cambodia Dei Roneat site factsheet
Cambodia Lomphat site factsheet
Cambodia Northern Santuk site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Toal site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Veal Srongae site factsheet
India Amchang Hills site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bordoloni - Sampora site factsheet
India Chakrashila Complex site factsheet
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deobali Jalah, Sialmari, Haibargaon, Khutikatia (Nagaon) site factsheet
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon site factsheet
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Kuarbari Dalani site factsheet
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pabho Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Sibsagar Tanks site factsheet
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex site factsheet
Myanmar Central Tanintharyi Coast site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Leptoptilos dubius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size 800-1200 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 96,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species