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Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd 
Vulnerable  

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass 4651 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,290,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,790,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5500-10000 poor Estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-1000000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.1 - - -
Population justification: A total population of 5,000 individuals was previously estimated by Hancock (1993), Choudhury (2000) and BirdLife International (2001). However, more extensive survey effort in recent years has led to upward revisions of some national totals: in particular the Cambodian population is now thought to number perhaps 1,500-3,500 pairs or 3,000-7,000 mature individuals (Goes in press, S. Mahood in litt. 2013). Taking this total and perhaps 1,200 mature individuals in India, c.300 in Malaysia and 200-700 in Nepal, plus an unknown number in Indonesia (previously estimated at 2,000 individuals in 1993 but may have severely declined since), and assuming only very small numbers elsewhere, the global population probably numbers 5,500-10,000 mature individuals (roughly equating to 8,000-15,000 individuals).
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with increasing levels of felling of colony nest trees, drainage and conversion of wetland feeding areas, agricultural intensification, pesticide use, disturbance and large-scale development in coastal areas, but, most seriously, the persistent and unregulated harvesting of eggs and chicks from colonies.
Successes in parts of Cambodia are likely to be isolated and may be short-term (C. Robson in litt. 2013), and declines are predicted to be ongoing elsewhere in the country . In Indonesia, estimates in South Sumatra and Jambi provinces in 1984-1986 were 514 birds (388-620) and 272 (152-475) birds respectively, while surveys in these provinces in 2001-2004 estimated only 124 birds (30-318) and 7 birds (2-17) respectively (M. Iqbal in litt. 2013), suggesting that very rapid declines may have occurred on Sumatra.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bangladesh Native Extant       Yes
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Brunei Native Extant       Yes
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Possibly Extinct   Yes    
India Native Extant       Yes
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Laos Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Native Extant       Yes
Singapore Native Extinct       Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant       Yes
Thailand Native Extant       Yes
Vietnam Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries) site factsheet
Bangladesh Teknaf Game Reserve site factsheet
Brunei Brunei Bay site factsheet
Brunei Seria Coast site factsheet
Brunei Ulu Temburong site factsheet
Brunei Wasan site factsheet
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla site factsheet
Cambodia Chhep site factsheet
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru site factsheet
Cambodia Dei Roneat site factsheet
Cambodia Lomphat site factsheet
Cambodia Lower Stung Sen site factsheet
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands site factsheet
Cambodia Northern Santuk site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Taek Sap site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Toal site factsheet
Cambodia Sesan River site factsheet
Cambodia Snoul / Keo Sema / O Reang site factsheet
Cambodia Sre Ambel site factsheet
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay site factsheet
Cambodia Stung / Prasat Balang site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Veal Srongae site factsheet
Cambodia Western Siem Pang site factsheet
India Amarambalam Reserved Forest - Nilambur site factsheet
India Amchang Hills site factsheet
India Bandhavgarh National Park site factsheet
India Bandipur National Park site factsheet
India Barail Range site factsheet
India Bauwwa Beel site factsheet
India Behali Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bherjan-Borajan-Podumoni Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bordoloni - Sampora site factsheet
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Carambolim Wetlands site factsheet
India Chakrashila Complex site factsheet
India Chandubi Lake and adjoining areas site factsheet
India Corbett Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deobali Jalah, Sialmari, Haibargaon, Khutikatia (Nagaon) site factsheet
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Dibang Reserve Forest and adjacent areas site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands site factsheet
India Dudhwa National Park site factsheet
India Dum Duma, Dangori and Kumsong Reserve Forests site factsheet
India East and North Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Farakka Barrage and adjoining area site factsheet
India Garampani, Nambor and Doigrung site factsheet
India Gibbon (Hollongapar) Sanctuary site factsheet
India Gogabil Pakshi Vihar, Baghar Beel and Baldia Chaur site factsheet
India Gorumara National Park site factsheet
India Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Innerline, Katakal and Barak Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jamjing and Sengajan site factsheet
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon site factsheet
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh site factsheet
India Kanha National Park site factsheet
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kuarbari Dalani site factsheet
India Kukkarahalli Tank site factsheet
India Kulik (Raiganj) Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kusheshwarsthan site factsheet
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park site factsheet
India Lumding - Marat Longri site factsheet
India Madhav National Park site factsheet
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Manas National Park site factsheet
India Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands site factsheet
India Mudumalai National Park site factsheet
India Nagarhole National Park site factsheet
India Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Nameri National Park site factsheet
India Navegaon National Park site factsheet
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex site factsheet
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pabho Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Panna National Park site factsheet
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park site factsheet
India Sibsagar Tanks site factsheet
India Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Son Beel site factsheet
India Subansiri site factsheet
India Sultanpur National Park site factsheet
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Tadoba National Park and Andhari Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex site factsheet
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve site factsheet
India Tirap - Burhidihing site factsheet
India Udhuwa Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (West) Complex site factsheet
India Urpod Beel site factsheet
India Valmiki Tiger Reserve and Saraiyaman Lake site factsheet
India Velavadar National Park site factsheet
Indonesia Alas Purwo site factsheet
Indonesia Bali Barat site factsheet
Indonesia Baluran site factsheet
Indonesia Berbak site factsheet
Indonesia Bukit Barisan Selatan site factsheet
Indonesia Bukit Tigapuluh site factsheet
Indonesia Danau Sentarum site factsheet
Indonesia Delta Mahakam site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Palung site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Tilu-Simpang site factsheet
Indonesia Hutan Kahayan site factsheet
Indonesia Hutan Rawa Gambut Barumun-Rokan site factsheet
Indonesia Hutan Rawa Gambut Siak-Kampar site factsheet
Indonesia Kerumutan site factsheet
Indonesia Lahan Basah Mahakam Tengah site factsheet
Indonesia Lembah Sungai Negara site factsheet
Indonesia Muara Gembong-Tanjung Sedari site factsheet
Indonesia Muara Kendawangan site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Timur Pantai Sumatera Utara site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Moyo site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Danau site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Pesisir Pantai Barat Tapanuli Selatan site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Tapus site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Tulang Bawang site factsheet
Indonesia Segara Anakan-Nusa Kambangan site factsheet
Indonesia Sembilang site factsheet
Indonesia Siak Kecil site factsheet
Indonesia Solo Delta site factsheet
Indonesia Tanjung Koyan site factsheet
Indonesia Tanjung Puting site factsheet
Indonesia Tanjung Selokan site factsheet
Indonesia Trumon-Singkil site factsheet
Indonesia Ujung Kulon site factsheet
Indonesia Way Kambas site factsheet
Laos Dong Kalo site factsheet
Laos Dong Khanthung site factsheet
Laos Xe Kong Plains site factsheet
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay site factsheet
Malaysia Brunei Bay (Malaysia) site factsheet
Malaysia Endau-Rompin site factsheet
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain site factsheet
Malaysia Klias peninsula site factsheet
Malaysia Kulamba Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Malaysia Loagan Bunut National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Panti forest site factsheet
Malaysia Pondok Tanjung Forest Reserve site factsheet
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Malaysia South-East Pahang peat swamp forest site factsheet
Malaysia South-west Johor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Teluk Air Tawar-Kuala Muda coast site factsheet
Malaysia Tempasuk plains site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady Delta (including Meinmahla Kyun) site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Bhamo Section site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section site factsheet
Myanmar Hukaung Valley site factsheet
Myanmar Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings site factsheet
Myanmar Karathuri site factsheet
Myanmar Pachan site factsheet
Myanmar Upper Mogaung Chaung basin site factsheet
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Dang Deukhuri foothill forests and west Rapti wetlands site factsheet
Nepal Dharan forests site factsheet
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area site factsheet
Nepal Ghodaghodi Lake site factsheet
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Nepal Mai Valley forests site factsheet
Nepal Nawalparasi forests site factsheet
Nepal Parsa Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Nepal Urlabari forest groves site factsheet
Sri Lanka Ampara site factsheet
Sri Lanka Anuradhapura site factsheet
Sri Lanka Bundala complex site factsheet
Sri Lanka Kantale Tank site factsheet
Sri Lanka Madura Oya site factsheet
Sri Lanka Minneriya / Girithale / Kaudulla site factsheet
Sri Lanka Padaviya site factsheet
Sri Lanka Polonnaruwa site factsheet
Sri Lanka Rugam Tank site factsheet
Sri Lanka Senanayake Samudraya / Nilgala site factsheet
Sri Lanka Udawalawa site factsheet
Sri Lanka Yala site factsheet
Thailand Chaloem Pra Kiet (Pa Phru to Daeng) site factsheet
Thailand Ko Phra Thong site factsheet
Vietnam Binh Dai site factsheet
Vietnam Chu M'lanh site factsheet
Vietnam Chu Prong site factsheet
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien site factsheet
Vietnam Tram Chim site factsheet
Vietnam U Minh Thuong site factsheet
Vietnam Ya Lop site factsheet
Vietnam Yok Don site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Leptoptilos javanicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author (Horsfield, 1821)
Population size 5500-10000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,290,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species