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Canada Goose Branta canadensis

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,870,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,870,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5500000-5900000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -
Population justification: (Wetlands International 2006)
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (1500% increase over 40 years, equating to a 101% increase per decade; data for Branta canadensis and B. hutchinsii combined, from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Introduced Extant      
Bahamas Native Extant      
Belarus Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Belgium Introduced Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Vagrant Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Cuba Native Extant      
Czech Republic Introduced Extant      
Denmark Introduced Extant     Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Introduced Extant Yes    
Finland Introduced Extant Yes    
France Introduced Extant   Yes  
Germany Introduced Extant      
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Haiti Native Extant      
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
Jamaica Vagrant Extant      
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Kiribati Vagrant Extant      
Latvia Vagrant Extant      
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant      
Lithuania Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Netherlands Introduced Extant      
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes    
North Korea Vagrant Extant      
Norway Introduced Extant      
Poland Introduced Extant   Yes  
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Russia (Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (European) Introduced Extant      
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Slovenia Vagrant Extant      
South Korea Vagrant Extant      
Spain Vagrant Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes
Sweden Introduced Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Ukraine Introduced Extant      
United Kingdom Introduced Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair site factsheet
Canada Galloway and Miry Bay site factsheet
Canada Grant's Lake WMA site factsheet
Canada Hay and Zama Lakes site factsheet
Canada Malpeque Bay site factsheet
Canada Marshy Point site factsheet
Canada Middle Back River site factsheet
Canada Nicolet et Baie-du-Fèbvre site factsheet
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes site factsheet
Canada Northeast James Bay site factsheet
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast site factsheet
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA site factsheet
Canada Plaine inondable de Saint-Barthélemy site factsheet
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park site factsheet
Canada Queen Maud Gulf site factsheet
Canada Réserve faunique de Plaisance site factsheet
Canada South Saskatchewan River (Empress to Lancer Ferry) site factsheet
Canada Twin Islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Branta canadensis. Downloaded from on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 5500000-5900000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,870,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species