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Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bc+3bc+4bc;C1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
Australia
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,710,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.1 - - -
Population justification: There are thought to be 1,000 asiaticus (G. Sundar in litt. 2002, 2006), plus possibly up to 20,000 breeding australis (S. Garnett in litt. 2006), giving perhaps up to 21,000 mature individuals and therefore up to c.31,000 individuals in total. In light of the uncertainty surrounding this figure, a conservative range estimate of 15,000-35,000 individuals is preferred.
Trend justification: It is known that the Asian population has declined and, whilst the timing of this decline is not known, much of it is likely to have occurred during the last 60 years. Trends in Australia have not been properly evaluated; however, this population appears relatively stable. The overall population is estimated to be declining at a slow to moderate rate. .

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Australia Native Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Vagrant Possibly Extinct   Yes    
Bhutan Native Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant       Yes
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Laos Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Native Extant       Yes
Pakistan Native Extinct   Yes    
Papua New Guinea Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant       Yes
Thailand Native Extinct       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Arafura Swamp site factsheet
Australia Lake Argyle site factsheet
Australia Roebuck Bay site factsheet
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla site factsheet
Cambodia Chhep site factsheet
India Bhashkarpara site factsheet
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author (Latham, 1790)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,710,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species