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White Stork Ciconia ciconia
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,320,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.5 - - -
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing or stable (Wetlands International 2006). In Europe, trends since 1982 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Benin Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Congo Vagrant Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant Yes      
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes  
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant     Yes Yes
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant     Yes  
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Lesotho Native Extant        
Liberia Vagrant Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Malawi Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Montenegro Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Poland Native Extant       Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant        
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Rwanda Native Extant        
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Vagrant Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant     Yes Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Metsamor site factsheet
Armenia Noravank site factsheet
Austria Lower Mur valley site factsheet
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest site factsheet
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen site factsheet
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Mesta Valley site factsheet
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Palakaria site factsheet
Bulgaria Rupite site factsheet
Bulgaria Zlatiata site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava site factsheet
Croatia Lower Sava river site factsheet
Croatia Poilovlje with Koncanica, Garesnica and Poljana fishponds site factsheet
Croatia Turopolje site factsheet
Czech Republic Bzenecka Doubrava-Straznicke Pomoravi site factsheet
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko site factsheet
Czech Republic Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands site factsheet
Czech Republic Pálava site factsheet
Czech Republic Poodri site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort site factsheet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin site factsheet
France Barthes de l'Adour site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge site factsheet
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Thessaly plain site factsheet
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iraq Baquba wetlands site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Israel Northern Arava valley site factsheet
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley site factsheet
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains site factsheet
Israel Western Negev site factsheet
Israel Zevulun valley site factsheet
Jordan Khirbat al Samra (sewage works) site factsheet
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh site factsheet
Latvia Gauja national park site factsheet
Latvia Razna site factsheet
Lebanon Aammiq wetland site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Pelagonia site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Elblag Height site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Bug river valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Pasleka river valley site factsheet
Poland Pisz forest site factsheet
Poland Sandomierz Forest site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Poland Warmia Site site factsheet
Portugal Castro Marim site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Paul do Taipal site factsheet
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) site factsheet
Portugal River Guadiana site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Sado estuary site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Romania Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului site factsheet
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani site factsheet
Romania Ciuc Depression site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Lake Strachina site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni site factsheet
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa site factsheet
Romania Râului Negru valley site factsheet
Romania Suhaia site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam site factsheet
Serbia Carska bara site factsheet
Serbia Gornje Potamisje site factsheet
Serbia Obedska bara site factsheet
Serbia Sitnica site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
Slovakia Horna Orava site factsheet
Slovakia Kosice valley site factsheet
Slovakia Laborecka upland site factsheet
Slovakia Medzibodrozie site factsheet
Slovakia Poiplie site factsheet
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system) site factsheet
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares site factsheet
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range site factsheet
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza site factsheet
Spain Brozas-Membrío site factsheet
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range site factsheet
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir site factsheet
Spain Canalizos mountain range (Saceruela) site factsheet
Spain Castronuño-Zamora site factsheet
Spain Ceuta site factsheet
Spain Cortados del Jarama site factsheet
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain La Limia site factsheet
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz site factsheet
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera site factsheet
Spain Oropesa plains site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo site factsheet
Spain River Moros site factsheet
Spain Segovia site factsheet
Spain Talamanca-Camarma site factsheet
Spain Tarifa site factsheet
Spain Tietar valley site factsheet
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa site factsheet
Spain Villafáfila site factsheet
Syria Golan Heights site factsheet
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area site factsheet
Turkey Amanos Mountains site factsheet
Turkey Balıkdamı site factsheet
Turkey Bismil Plain site factsheet
Turkey Bosphorus site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Göksu Delta site factsheet
Turkey İğneada Forests site factsheet
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area site factsheet
Uzbekistan Mirzaaral Tugay site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir site factsheet
Yemen Ta'izz wadis site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland Major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate Major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Ciconia ciconia. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,320,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment