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Abdim's Stork Ciconia abdimii

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is an intra-African trans-equatorial migrant (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992), making seasonal movements to coincide with rainfall (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Hockey et al. 2005). After breeding in the wet season of the northern tropics (between May and August), it moves east then south (West African populations), or south (East African populations), through the equatorial rain-belt (September-October), and arrives in the southern tropics early in the southern wet season (November-March) (Brown et al. 1982). It remains in this southern range until March (when the rains decrease), after which it moves north again through East Africa at the beginning of the long rains (March-April), arriving back in the breeding grounds in April and May before (or just as) the heavy rains begin (Brown et al. 1982). The species is gregarious and is rarely seen in groups of less than 10 (Brown et al. 1982), often traveling in vast flocks of c.10,000 (del Hoyo et al. 1992). On migration it lands daily to feed (del Hoyo et al. 1992), both migrating and foraging diurnally (Brown et al. 1982). It breeds in widely-scattered colonies, normally not exceeding 20 pairs (Brown et al. 1982) (although groups of between 30 and 50 are recorded occasionally) (Hancock et al. 1992, Adjakpa 2000). Habitat The species frequents open grassland, pastures, areas of cultivation (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992) and savanna woodland (Hockey et al. 2005), often near water but also in semi-arid areas, gathering beside pools, water-holes, wells and swamps when not feeding (Brown et al. 1982), and roosting on trees or cliffs (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet The species is primarily insectivorous (Hancock et al. 1992), its diet consisting almost entirely of large grassland insects such as swarming locusts, army worm Spodoptera exempta caterpillars, grasshoppers and crickets, although it will also take mice (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992), frogs, lizards, small fish, molluscs, crabs (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock et al. 1992), millipedes, scorpions, water rats and small birds (Hancock et al. 1992, Hockey et al. 2005). Breeding site The species breeds colonially, with nests being built from sticks and vegetation in trees or on cliffs, or on the roofs of huts in villages, and will often be used from year to year unless they collapse (although not necessarily by the same breeding pair) (Brown et al. 1982).

Threats
The species is potentially threatened by habitat degradation through urban development and agricultural activities (such as maize farming) which have reduced the available area of natural grassland (Harrison et al. 1997). In Namibia it is threatened by habitat degradation through overgrazing and bush encroachment (Harrison et al. 1997). The species may also be threatened by the control of its principle food source, locusts, either through direct poisoning (Hancock et al. 1992, Harrison et al. 1997) (a mass mortality event in Sudan may have been the result of extensive use of pesticides) (Coulter et al. 1989), or through a reduction in the availability of food (Hancock et al. 1992, Harrison et al. 1997). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

References
Adjakpa, J. B. 2000. The breeding biology of Abdim's Stork Ciconia abdimii in the far north of Benin. Ostrich 71(1-2): 61-63.

Brown, L. H.; Urban, E. K.; Newman, K. 1982. The birds of Africa vol I. Academic Press, London.

Coulter, M. C.; Balzano, S.; Johnson, R.; King, C.; Shannon, P. 1989. Conservation and captive management of storks. Stork Interest Group, Unknown.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hancock, J. A.; Kushlan, J. A.; Kahl, M. P. 1992. Storks, ibises and spoonbills of the world. Academic Press, London.

Harrison, J. A.; Allan, D. G.; Underhill, L. G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A. J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C. J. 1997. The atlas of southern African birds. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Hockey, P. A. R.; Dean, W. R. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Nikolaus, G. 2001. Bird exploitation for traditional medicine in Nigeria. Malimbus 23: 45-55.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ciconia abdimii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Abdim's stork (Ciconia abdimii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author Lichtenstein, 1823
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,490,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change