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Black Stork Ciconia nigra

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.24,000-44,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: < c.100,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.100,000 breeding pairs, < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.100,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant Yes      
Benin Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Vagrant Extant        
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Vagrant Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Germany Native Extant Yes      
Ghana Vagrant Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes  
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes  
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Lesotho Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malawi Native Extant        
Mali Vagrant Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant   Yes    
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant        
Niger Vagrant Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Vagrant Extant        
South Africa Native Extant Yes      
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant     Yes Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Amasia site factsheet
Armenia Haghartsin site factsheet
Austria Lower Mur valley site factsheet
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest site factsheet
Austria Middle Kamp valley site factsheet
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen site factsheet
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein site factsheet
Austria Southern Waldviertel site factsheet
Austria Styrian Joglland site factsheet
Austria Vienna forest site factsheet
Belarus Al'manskija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina site factsheet
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Polesie Reserve site factsheet
Belarus Staraja Vic' site factsheet
Belgium Croix-Scaille site factsheet
Belgium Deux Ourthes site factsheet
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale site factsheet
Belgium Saint-Hubert site factsheet
Bulgaria Arda Bridge site factsheet
Bulgaria Byala Reka site factsheet
Bulgaria Derventski Heights site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Krumovitza site factsheet
Bulgaria Madzharovo site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksu River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe site factsheet
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River site factsheet
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Xiaruyue Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Yiwulü Shan Nature Reserve site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial forests from Podravska Slatina to Vuka site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava site factsheet
Croatia Danube and Drava rivers' lowland areas site factsheet
Croatia Lower Sava river site factsheet
Croatia Turopolje site factsheet
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Doupov hills site factsheet
Czech Republic Jeseniky mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) site factsheet
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Estonia Karula site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa site factsheet
Estonia Soomaa site factsheet
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma site factsheet
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs site factsheet
France Forêt de Jugny site factsheet
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines site factsheet
Georgia Eastern Caucasus site factsheet
Georgia Iori Region site factsheet
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz site factsheet
Hungary Gemenc site factsheet
Hungary Inner Somogy site factsheet
Hungary Zemplén Mountains site factsheet
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Israel Judean foothills site factsheet
Israel Northern Arava valley site factsheet
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley site factsheet
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains site factsheet
Israel Western Negev site factsheet
Israel Zevulun valley site factsheet
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor) site factsheet
Latvia Gauja national park site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine site factsheet
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs site factsheet
Latvia Vecumi site factsheet
Latvia Zvarde forest site factsheet
Lebanon Aammiq wetland site factsheet
Lesotho Upper Senqu River site factsheet
Lithuania Birzai forest site factsheet
Lithuania Buda-Pravieniskes forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Dotnuva-Josvainiai forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex site factsheet
Lithuania Krekenava forests site factsheet
Lithuania Labunava forest site factsheet
Lithuania Lanciunava forest site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Sesuoliai forest site factsheet
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Vainutas, Begedziai, Zasyciai & neighbouring forests complex site factsheet
Lithuania Zalioji & Gitenai forests complex site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Tikvesh site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Raec valley site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section site factsheet
Myanmar Myitkyina-Nandebad-Talawagyi site factsheet
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes) site factsheet
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Barycz river valley site factsheet
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains site factsheet
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Bieszczady Mountains site factsheet
Poland Borecka forest site factsheet
Poland Drawa River Site site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Insko Site site factsheet
Poland Janów forests site factsheet
Poland Kampinos forest site factsheet
Poland Knyszyn Forest site factsheet
Poland Kozienicka Forest site factsheet
Poland Przemysl Plateau site factsheet
Poland Roztocze site factsheet
Poland Sandomierz Forest site factsheet
Poland Sieniawa Forest site factsheet
Poland Slonne Mountains site factsheet
Poland Solska Forest site factsheet
Poland Stolowe Mountains site factsheet
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Poland Warmia Site site factsheet
Poland Wloszczowa Basin site factsheet
Portugal Cabeção site factsheet
Portugal Côa valley site factsheet
Portugal Estrela Mountains site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão site factsheet
Portugal River Guadiana site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei site factsheet
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş site factsheet
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain site factsheet
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa site factsheet
Romania Suhaia site factsheet
Romania Vedea - Dunăre site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Urul'guveem hollow site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Middle reaches of the Chulym river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Berd' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas site factsheet
Russia (European) Kletnyanski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasniy Les area site factsheet
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland site factsheet
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Terek river, Kabardino-Balkaria site factsheet
Slovakia Horna Orava site factsheet
Slovakia Laborecka upland site factsheet
Slovakia Medzibodrozie site factsheet
Slovakia Slanské hills site factsheet
Slovakia Volovské hills site factsheet
Slovenia Goričko site factsheet
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain site factsheet
Slovenia River Drava site factsheet
Slovenia River Mura site factsheet
Slovenia Rocky faces of Posavsko hribovje site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Kruger National Park and adjacent areas site factsheet
South Africa Magaliesberg site factsheet
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy site factsheet
South Africa UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park site factsheet
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares site factsheet
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range site factsheet
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle site factsheet
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo site factsheet
Spain Borbollón reservoir site factsheet
Spain Brozas-Membrío site factsheet
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir site factsheet
Spain Campo de Argañán site factsheet
Spain Cedillo reservoir site factsheet
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Ceuta site factsheet
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary site factsheet
Spain Cijara reservoir site factsheet
Spain Coria mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain East Gata mountain range site factsheet
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias site factsheet
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas site factsheet
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir site factsheet
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas site factsheet
Spain La Serena site factsheet
Spain Las Contiendas mountain range site factsheet
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range site factsheet
Spain Low Tietar river and La Vera valley site factsheet
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja site factsheet
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz site factsheet
Spain Monfragüe site factsheet
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir site factsheet
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Peña de Francia site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range site factsheet
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey site factsheet
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros site factsheet
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero site factsheet
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range site factsheet
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley) site factsheet
Spain San Pedro mountain range site factsheet
Spain Sierra de Aracena site factsheet
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba site factsheet
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla site factsheet
Spain Siruela-Agudo site factsheet
Spain Tarifa site factsheet
Spain Tietar valley site factsheet
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros site factsheet
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa site factsheet
Spain Valuengo reservoir site factsheet
Spain Villanueva del Fresno site factsheet
Spain West Andévalo site factsheet
Turkey Amanos Mountains site factsheet
Turkey Bosphorus site factsheet
Turkey Göksu Delta site factsheet
Turkey İğneada Forests site factsheet
Turkey Kirmir Valley site factsheet
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests site factsheet
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta site factsheet
Turkey Kocaçay Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir site factsheet
Turkey Terkos Basin site factsheet
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain site factsheet
Turkey Uludağ site factsheet
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains site factsheet
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys site factsheet
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Stokhod river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Ushomyrs'ke Game Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Uzh river valley site factsheet
Zambia Mosi-Oa-Tunya National Park and Batoka Gorge site factsheet
Zimbabwe Sebakwe Poort site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ciconia nigra. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 13,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change