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Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd 
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 87,600 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,700 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500 good Estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population was previously thought likely to total fewer than 5,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300 mature individuals, based on estimates of c.5,000 individuals in Sumatra in the late 1980s (Silvius and Verheugt 1989) and 100-150 individuals in Java (M. Silvius in litt. 2002), plus 10 birds in Malaysia and 20-40 in Cambodia. Recent estimates put the global population far lower, at around 2,200 birds, based on totals of c.1,600 in Sumatra (c.75 individuals in Aceh province, c.500 North Sumatra province, c.350 Riau province, c.100 Jambi province, c.500 South Sumatra province and c.75 Lampung province), c.500 individuals, but possibly fewer, on Java, and <100 birds on the mainland of South-East Asia (Iqbal et al. in prep). This roughly equates to 1,500 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining very rapidly in line with intense hunting pressure at nesting colonies and the rapid loss and conversion of coastal habitat. Estimates for Sumatra, which holds the bulk of the global population, fell from 5,000 birds in 1986 (Silvius 1988, Silvius & Verheugt 1989), to 1,600 in 2009 (Iqbal et al. in prep). In Java, a wintering flock in east Madura of 170+ birds observed in 1996 had diminished to c.70 birds in 2006, which may be representative of an island-wide decline (B. van Balen in litt. 2013). Numbers in Malaysia fell from counts of over 100 individuals in 1984, to fewer than 10 birds in 2005, and only a single wild bird in 2010 (Malaysian Nature Society 2005, Li et al. 2006, DWNP 2010). The tiny Cambodian population may be relatively stable, but at the global scale very rapid ongoing declines of 50-79% in three generations (25 years) are estimated.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extant       Yes
Singapore Introduced Extant        
Thailand Vagrant Extinct        
Vietnam Vagrant Extinct        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Taek Sap site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Toal site factsheet
Cambodia Sre Ambel site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Indonesia Bali Barat site factsheet
Indonesia Berbak site factsheet
Indonesia Bukit Barisan Selatan site factsheet
Indonesia Danau Tempe site factsheet
Indonesia Feruhumpenai-Matano site factsheet
Indonesia Kerumutan site factsheet
Indonesia Morowali site factsheet
Indonesia Muara Angke site factsheet
Indonesia Muara Cimanuk site factsheet
Indonesia Muara Gembong-Tanjung Sedari site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara site factsheet
Indonesia Pesisir Timur Pantai Sumatera Utara site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Dua site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Rambut site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Aopa Watumohai site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Tulang Bawang site factsheet
Indonesia Segara Anakan-Nusa Kambangan site factsheet
Indonesia Sembilang site factsheet
Indonesia Siak Kecil site factsheet
Indonesia Solo Delta site factsheet
Indonesia Sumenep site factsheet
Indonesia Taliwang site factsheet
Indonesia Tanjung Koyan site factsheet
Indonesia Tanjung Selokan site factsheet
Indonesia Way Kambas site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia South-west Johor coast site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Hybridisation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Mycteria cinerea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
Species name author (Raffles, 1822)
Population size 1500 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 87,600 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species