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Emperor Goose Anser canagicus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2de+4cde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 42,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 42,100 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.85,000 individuals (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2001), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population trend is unclear, with increasing trends in North America as measured using data from the Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count (Butcher and Niven 2007), but a moderately rapid decline is suspected to have occurred overall, with at least a moderate decline expected in the future as a result of climate change.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Canada Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Japan Vagrant Extant        
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
USA Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Russia (Asian) Commander islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Mechigmen lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Meechkyn spit and adjacent plain site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Meinypylginski and Kapylgyn lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay site factsheet
USA Bechevin Bay site factsheet
USA Carter Bay site factsheet
USA Central Yukon-Kuskokwim site factsheet
USA Chagvan Bay site factsheet
USA Chignik Bay site factsheet
USA Chiniak Bay site factsheet
USA Cinder River-Hook Lagoon site factsheet
USA Egegik Bay site factsheet
USA Goodnews Bay site factsheet
USA Ivanof Bay site factsheet
USA Izembek-Moffet-Kinzarof Lagoons site factsheet
USA Kuluk Bay site factsheet
USA Kuskokwim River Delta site factsheet
USA Kvichak Bay site factsheet
USA Nanvak Bay site factsheet
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay site factsheet
USA Nushagak Bay site factsheet
USA Nushagak Bay, marine site factsheet
USA Port Heiden site factsheet
USA Port Moller-Herendeen Bay site factsheet
USA Seal Islands site factsheet
USA Ugashik Bay site factsheet
USA Wide Bay site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable passage
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Anser canagicus. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Sevastianov, 1802)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 42,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species