Although the population of this species is now stable or perhaps even increasing, it is likely to still be recovering after dramatic declines in the El Nino year of 1998. It could suffer similar declines in the future if conditions were repeated, for these reasons it is classified as Near Threatened.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Pelecanus occidentalis and P. thagus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) previously lumped into P. occidentalis following SACC (2005), are now considered distinct species following SACC (2007).
Identification. Average weight 7 kg; length 1.5 m. Dark in colour with a white stripe from the top of the bill to the crown and down the sides of the neck; pale upperwings; dark brown patch on humerals; long tufted feathers on head; facial skin dark with restricted pink around the eye; reddish bill tip; bill base yellow; blue striped gular pouch that is brighter during its breeding season. Similar species. Used to be considered a subspecies of Pelecanus occidentalis but differs in its larger size and greater length.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Wetland International - China Office. 2006. Relict Gull surveys in Hongjianao, Shaanxi Province. Newsletter of China Ornithological Society 15(2): 29.
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J
Garcia-Godos, I., Jaramillo, A., Monteiro, A., Simeone, A., Zavalaga, C.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Pelecanus thagus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/12/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Species name author||Molina, 1782|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||220,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|