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Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,410,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8700-12000 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.4 - - -
Population justification: S. Subramanya (in litt. 2006) has suggested that the population in South India now exceeds 5,000 birds owing to increases resulting from improved protection of the species. This would imply a total population of perhaps 7,000-10,000 individuals in South Asia, and 13,000-18,000 individuals globally, roughly equivalent to 8,700-12,000 mature individuals,
Trend justification: The species declined rapidly during the 20th century, but in recent years the population appears to have stabilised, with at least some populations apparently now increasing in response to improved protection (P. Round in litt. 2006, S. Subramanya in litt. 2006). The global population is suspected to have undergone a moderately rapid decline over the last three generations.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh Native Extinct   Yes  
Cambodia Native Extant Yes    
China (mainland) Vagrant Extinct   Yes  
India Native Extant Yes    
Indonesia Native Extant Yes    
Laos Native Extant   Yes  
Malaysia Vagrant Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant   Yes  
Nepal Native Extant   Yes  
Philippines Native Extinct   Yes  
Singapore Vagrant Extant   Yes  
South Korea Vagrant Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant Yes    
Thailand Native Extant   Yes  
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries) site factsheet
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Bassac Marsh site factsheet
Cambodia Basset Marsh site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Veal Samnap site factsheet
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru site factsheet
Cambodia Lower Stung Sen site factsheet
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Taek Sap site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Toal site factsheet
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Cambodia Veal Srongae site factsheet
India Amchang Hills site factsheet
India Bauwwa Beel site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Big Tank (Peria Kanmai) and Sakkarakotai Kanmai site factsheet
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bordoloni - Sampora site factsheet
India Chitragudi and Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Corbett Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary and Godavari estuary site factsheet
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Dibang Reserve Forest and adjacent areas site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands site factsheet
India Dudhwa National Park site factsheet
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Innerline, Katakal and Barak Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Jamjing and Sengajan site factsheet
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon site factsheet
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh site factsheet
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary site factsheet
India Karaivetti Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Karanji Tank site factsheet
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Kokkare Bellur site factsheet
India Kole Wetland site factsheet
India Kolleru Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir site factsheet
India Kuarbari Dalani site factsheet
India Kukkarahalli Tank site factsheet
India Kullur Sandai Reservoir site factsheet
India Kunthangulam Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes site factsheet
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs site factsheet
India Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Manas National Park site factsheet
India Mangal Jodi site factsheet
India Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Narasambudhi Lake site factsheet
India Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pabho Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pulicat Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Son Beel site factsheet
India Suchindram Therur, Vembanoor site factsheet
India Sulekere Lake site factsheet
India Sultanpur National Park site factsheet
India Telineelapuram site factsheet
India Udaipur Lakes Complex site factsheet
India Uppalapadu site factsheet
India Vaduvoor Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Vandivoorand Kunnathur Tanks (Madurai) site factsheet
India Vedanthangal and Karikili Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Veeranam Lake site factsheet
India Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Watrap Periakulam and Virakasamuthrakulam site factsheet
India Wellington Reservoir site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Indonesia Sembilang site factsheet
Indonesia Way Kambas site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section site factsheet
Myanmar Bumphabum site factsheet
Myanmar Chatthin site factsheet
Myanmar Htamanthi site factsheet
Myanmar Hukaung Valley site factsheet
Myanmar Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings site factsheet
Myanmar Kamaing site factsheet
Myanmar Moyingyi site factsheet
Myanmar Upper Mogaung Chaung basin site factsheet
Myanmar Uyu River site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Philippines Candaba swamp site factsheet
Philippines Lake Lanao site factsheet
Philippines Liguasan marsh site factsheet
Philippines Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Sri Lanka Ampara site factsheet
Sri Lanka Anaiwilundawa complex site factsheet
Sri Lanka Anuradhapura site factsheet
Sri Lanka Bellanwila-Attidiya site factsheet
Sri Lanka Bundala complex site factsheet
Sri Lanka Jafna Lagoon site factsheet
Sri Lanka Kantale Tank site factsheet
Sri Lanka Madura Oya site factsheet
Sri Lanka Minneriya / Girithale / Kaudulla site factsheet
Sri Lanka Padaviya site factsheet
Sri Lanka Pimburettewa Tank site factsheet
Sri Lanka Polonnaruwa site factsheet
Sri Lanka Rugam Tank site factsheet
Sri Lanka Senanayake Samudraya / Nilgala site factsheet
Sri Lanka Sigiriya site factsheet
Sri Lanka Udawalawa site factsheet
Sri Lanka Yala site factsheet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand site factsheet
Thailand Lower Central Basin site factsheet
Vietnam Can Gio site factsheet
Vietnam Dat Mui site factsheet
Vietnam Kien Luong site factsheet
Vietnam Nghia Hung site factsheet
Vietnam U Minh Thuong site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pelecanus philippensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
Species name author Gmelin, 1789
Population size 8700-12000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species