email a friend
printable version
CR
Giant Ibis Thaumatibis gigantea

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i) 
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i);D1 
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i);D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,700 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 230 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 3-10 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1-50 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -
Population justification: Recent assessment of the available records suggests a minimum estimate of 115 pairs (40 at each of the two high density sites, 5-10 at each of seven low density sites) (T. Evans, H. Rainey, R. Vann and H. Wright in litt. 2012). This is equivalent to a minimum of 230 mature individuals, and roughly 345 individuals in total.
Trend justification: An extremely rapid population decline is suspected to have occurred over the last three generations and is projected to occur over the next three generations, based on information from T. Clements (in litt. 2007), who has commented: "Deforestation scenarios project that Cambodia will lose 50% or more of its forest habitat in the next 25 years, a greater portion of which is expected to be in the lowland areas inhabited by Giant Ibis. For example, recent assessments have shown that Cambodia lost 1-2% of its forest annually during 2002-2006. Giant Ibises are known to be highly sensitive to human disturbance, hence increasing deforestation and habitat fragmentation would have a disproportionate effect on the remaining ibis populations".

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
Laos Native Extant       Yes
Thailand Native Extinct       Yes
Vietnam Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cambodia Chhep site factsheet
Cambodia Lomphat site factsheet
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands site factsheet
Cambodia Sekong River site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Western Siem Pang site factsheet
Laos Dong Kalo site factsheet
Laos Dong Khanthung site factsheet
Laos Xe Kong Plains site factsheet
Vietnam Yok Don site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Thaumatibis gigantea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises, Spoonbills)
Species name author (Oustalet, 1877)
Population size 230 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 24,700 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species