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White-shouldered Ibis Pseudibis davisoni

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A3cd+4cd 
Endangered A3cd+4cd;C2a(i);D1 
Vulnerable A3cd+4cd;C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2011 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 88,900 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 650 good Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 51-250 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7 - - -
Population justification: The Indonesian population was estimated at 30-100 individuals but has apparently declined. Nationwide coordinated surveys for the species in Cambodia recorded a total of 644 individuals in September 2011 (Sum P. and H. Wright in litt. 2012). Based on these survey data, a minimum population of 650 mature individuals seems appropriate, equivalent to at least 970 individuals in total.
Trend justification: The species declined precipitously during the 20th century having been relatively common in the early part of that period. Until very recently its global status has been poorly monitored and there is insufficient evidence to estimate a rate of decline. Widespread habitat conversion is now underway or projected across most of the species's range, which is likely to result in extremely rapid declines in the next 10-20 years. Two of three known sites where the highest numbers have been recorded are currently not under any formal legal protection and are therefore particularly vulnerable to being targeted for conversion.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Cambodia Native Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Possibly Extinct       Yes
Indonesia Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Extant Yes      
Myanmar Native Possibly Extinct       Yes
Thailand Native Extinct       Yes
Vietnam Native Extinct       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Lomphat site factsheet
Cambodia Mekong River from Kratie to Lao PDR site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Veal Srongae site factsheet
Cambodia Western Siem Pang site factsheet
Indonesia Lahan Basah Mahakam Tengah site factsheet
Indonesia Lembah Sungai Negara site factsheet
Indonesia Ulu Barito site factsheet
Laos Xe Kong Plains site factsheet
Vietnam Kien Luong site factsheet
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pseudibis davisoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises, Spoonbills)
Species name author (Hume, 1875)
Population size 650 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 88,900 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species