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Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected that it will undergo a moderately rapid population decline over the next three generations owing to egg-harvesting, hunting, disturbance and the degradation of its habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Phoenicopterus chilensis breeds in central Peru (apparently erratically, irregularly and in small numbers) (M. A. Plenge in litt. 1999), Bolivia, Argentina, Chile and perhaps erratically in Paraguay (at least one breeding record, and perhaps increasing in the Chaco, with 5,200 wintering in 2005, R. P. Clay in litt. 2000, Lesterhuis et al. 2008), with a few wintering in Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil, and vagrants in Ecuador and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In the mid-1970s, the population was estimated at 500,000 birds, but more recent figures of 100,000 in Argentina, up to 30,000 in Chile, and tens of thousands in Peru and Bolivia, suggested that no more than 200,000 individuals might persist; however, coordinated surveys in 2010 found 283,000 individuals and estimated the total population at 300,000 (Marconi et al. 2011).



Population justification
The population was estimated to number 200,000 individuals by del Hoyo (1992) and Valqui et al. (2000); however, a coordinated census in 2010 found 283,000 individuals, and gave a total population estimate of 300,000 individuals (Marconi et al. 2011).

Trend justification
Recent survey data are not indicative of a decline in the population at present (Marconi et al. 2011); but it is suspected that the population will undergo a moderately rapid decline over the next three generations owing to egg-harvesting, hunting, disturbance and degradation of the species's habitats.

Ecology
It occurs on coastal mudflats, estuaries, lagoons and salt-lakes at elevations up to 4,500 m. Breeding habitat is typified by the presence of suitable salinities and islands with extensive surrounding mudflats - conditions that do not occur each year. At Mar Chiquita, birds bred in only nine of the 26 years to 1999.

Threats
It has probably been subject to intensive egg-harvesting since the arrival of humans in South America and, in recent years, egg-collectors have been responsible for the partial or complete failure of colonies in Bolivia (del Hoyo 1992, Flamingo CAP Questionnaire 1998). Mar Chiquita (Argentina), perhaps the most important breeding site, is threatened by abstraction of water for irrigation projects. Mining has wrought extensive habitat alteration, and the species also suffers from hunting and tourism-related disturbance (Flamingo CAP Questionnaire 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Extend and continue simultaneous surveys during the breeding season to monitor population. Introduce measures to control intensive egg-harvesting.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
del Hoyo, J. 1992. Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 508-526. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Lesterhuis, A., Clay, R. P., del Castillo, H. 2008. Status and Distribution in Paraguay of the Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Flamingo 16: 41-45.

Marconi, P., Sureda, A. L., Arengo, F., Aguilar, M. S., Amado, N., Alza, L., Rocha, O., Torres, R., Moschione, F., Romano, M., Sosa, H., Derlindati, E. 2011. Fourth simultaneous flamingo census in South America: preliminary results. Flamingo 18: 48-53.

Valqui, M.; Caziani, S. M.; Rocha-O, O.; Rodriguez-R, E. 2000. Abundance and distribution of the South American Altiplano flamingos. Waterbirds 23(Special publication): 110-113.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Pilgrim, J., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Arengo, F., Clay, R. & Plenge, M.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phoenicopterus chilensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos)
Species name author Molina, 1782
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,270,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species