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Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 263,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 18000-22000 good Estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-1000000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.4 - - -
Population justification: There is an estimated population of 8,000-11,000 autumn individuals in the western Palearctic plus about 20,000 wintering individuals from the east Asian flyway (from 11,800-16,800 counted in 1999, 16,600 in 2003, and 16,937 counted in the Lower Yangtze Valley in 2004). This gives a global estimate of 28,000-33,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 18,000-22,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species' population is suspected to have decreased rapidly, owing to levels of hunting on the staging and wintering grounds, and habitat deterioration (largely as a result of land cultivation). The decrease in numbers has been accompanied by fragmentation of the breeding range and is continuing to affect all populations. Modelling indicates that 28% of the habitat for this species could be lost by 2070 (Zöckler and Lysenko 2000).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Unknown Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant     Yes  
Armenia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Belarus Native Extant     Yes  
Belgium Reintroduced Extant   Yes    
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Egypt Vagrant Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes  
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Georgia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Germany Reintroduced Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Hungary Native Extant   Yes Yes  
India Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Jordan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Latvia Native Extant     Yes  
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes  
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant     Yes  
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Myanmar Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Netherlands Reintroduced Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
South Korea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Reintroduced Extant       Yes
Switzerland Vagrant Extant        
Syria Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant        
Tajikistan Unknown Extant   Yes Yes  
Turkey Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant     Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Armenia Lake Sevan site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex site factsheet
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hala Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huanzidong site factsheet
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Liangshui Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nuomin-Bila He-Dayangshu site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui) site factsheet
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) site factsheet
Greece Nestou delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iraq Haur Chubaisah area site factsheet
Iraq Hawizeh site factsheet
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh site factsheet
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ashchykol and Barakkol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds site factsheet
Romania Lake Fundata site factsheet
Romania Lake Strachina site factsheet
Romania Lake Taşaul site factsheet
Romania Lake Techirghiol site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Angara river source site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands (including Khinganskiy Nature Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Gusikha river basin and lower Balakhnya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Indigirka delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Korfa bay (northern part) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lena delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Manily lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Muna River site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Muraviovskiy Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Terpyay-Tumus site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Trekhozerki lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Troitskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Yana delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river site factsheet
Russia (European) Agriculture lands of south and east of Novouzenski district site factsheet
Russia (European) Arski fish-ponds site factsheet
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulgarski site factsheet
Russia (European) Central Forest Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas site factsheet
Russia (European) Curonian (Courish) Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kotorosl' and Ust'e rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area site factsheet
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Kargopol' area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kazachka site factsheet
Russia (European) Kissyk area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river site factsheet
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river site factsheet
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian (Courish) Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Pinezhski meadow site factsheet
Russia (European) Pinezhski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system site factsheet
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system site factsheet
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts site factsheet
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village site factsheet
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe site factsheet
Russia (European) Torna - Shoina watershed site factsheet
Russia (European) Turali lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Unskaya bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river site factsheet
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
Sweden Lake Tjålmejaure-Laisdalen valley site factsheet
Sweden Sjaunja site factsheet
Sweden Taavavuoma site factsheet
Sweden Vindelfjällen mountains (including Lake Tärnasjön) site factsheet
Turkey Saros Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Chauda site factsheet
Ukraine Pivdennyj Bug river valley (Goloskiv village) site factsheet
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Luchytsi village) site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / American Mink (Neovison vison) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anser erythropus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 18000-22000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species