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Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 287 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.7 - - -
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable or increasing, and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Vagrant Extant        
Albania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant     Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Belarus Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Benin Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant Yes      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Germany Native Extant Yes      
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant Yes      
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant     Yes  
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Lesotho Native Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Vagrant Extant        
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mauritius Vagrant Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Poland Vagrant Extant        
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant Yes      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes   Yes
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Native Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Tanzania Native Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes      
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant     Yes  
Zambia Native Extant Yes      
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Metsamor site factsheet
Azerbaijan Aggyol National Park site factsheet
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve site factsheet
Azerbaijan Kura Delta site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato site factsheet
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Ibisha Island site factsheet
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island site factsheet
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Srebarna site factsheet
Cameroon Logone flood-plain site factsheet
Chad Lake Chad site factsheet
Chad Lake Fitri site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava site factsheet
Croatia Danube and Drava rivers' lowland areas site factsheet
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds site factsheet
Croatia Jelas field including fishponds and wet pastures along Sava RIver site factsheet
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds site factsheet
Egypt Lake Manzala site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas site factsheet
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou) site factsheet
Greece Lake Kastoria (Orestiada) site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lake Mikri Prespa and Lake Megali Prespa site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós site factsheet
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz site factsheet
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
Hungary Kesznyéten site factsheet
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton site factsheet
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley site factsheet
Hungary Péteri Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Italy Caorle lagoon site factsheet
Italy Codigoro heronry site factsheet
Italy Fucecchio marsh site factsheet
Italy Lake Trasimeno site factsheet
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi site factsheet
Italy Lomellina and Heronries of Pavia province site factsheet
Italy Po Delta site factsheet
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona site factsheet
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana site factsheet
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini site factsheet
Italy Ticino river site factsheet
Italy Valli di Argenta site factsheet
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano site factsheet
Italy Venice lagoon site factsheet
Italy Vercelli rice-fields site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Montenegro Lake Skadar site factsheet
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo site factsheet
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava site factsheet
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei site factsheet
Romania Balta Vederoasa site factsheet
Romania Bistreţ site factsheet
Romania Blahniţa site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Comana site factsheet
Romania Dăbuleni - Grinduri site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Dunăreni site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Romania Vedea - Dunăre site factsheet
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Shapsugsko-Takhtamutaiskaya rice-irrigation system site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system site factsheet
Russia (European) Volga Delta site factsheet
Serbia Becej fish-pond site factsheet
Serbia Carska bara site factsheet
Serbia Gornje Potamisje site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain site factsheet
South Africa Nyl River Floodplain site factsheet
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system) site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain El Hondo wetland site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans site factsheet
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes site factsheet
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes site factsheet
Turkey Ereğli Plain site factsheet
Turkey Göksu Delta site factsheet
Turkey Hotamış Marshes site factsheet
Turkey İron Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Işıklı Lake site factsheet
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake site factsheet
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake) site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Lake site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Turkey Mogan lake site factsheet
Turkey Sultan Marsh site factsheet
Turkey Uluabat Lake site factsheet
Turkey Yeşilırmak Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, decorations, curios Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Ardeola ralloides. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Ardeidae (Herons)
Species name author (Scopoli, 1769)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 18,600,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment