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Swan Goose Anser cygnoid

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,170,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 919,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population has been estimated at c.60,000-90,000 individuals (Liu Binsheng et al. 2002, Zhao Jisheng 2002, Lei Jinyu per T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012). Barter et al. (2004) and Barter (in prep.) counted 60,886 individuals in the Lower Yangtze Valley in 2004 and 61,178 individuals in 2005 (see also Barter in litt. 2007). In addition, the population in Korea has been estimated at c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals. The most recent coordinated survey of the Yangtze River wetlands in January 2011 found a total of 87,544 individuals (Lei Jinyu per T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012), suggesting an upwards revision of the upper boundary for the estimate of mature individuals to 90,000.  However, this apparent increase is more likely the result of better count coverage than a genuine increase in population size (T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012).
Trend justification: Substantial declines have been observed in the population of this species in parts of its breeding range in eastern Russia and Mongolia (BirdLife International 2001), as well as its wintering areas in China (Zhang et al. 2011), thus the global population is suspected to have decreased rapidly, in line with levels of hunting and wetland conversion for agriculture and development, with both of these threats operating on the breeding and wintering grounds. The increase in the population estimate following surveys in January 2011 is unlikely to represent an actual increase in the population (T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Vagrant Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
North Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant        
South Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Thailand Vagrant Extant        
Turkmenistan Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Uzbekistan Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes) site factsheet
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Caimushan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changshou Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Chi Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dabusu Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Daqinggou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Eastern tidal flat of Nanhui site factsheet
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Hala Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hong Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huret site factsheet
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiangkou Niaozhou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Liangshui Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mangui site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Mudanfeng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Niuxintaobao site factsheet
China (mainland) Nuomin-Bila He-Dayangshu site factsheet
China (mainland) Ordos Taolimiao-Alashanwan Haizi site factsheet
China (mainland) Orqohan site factsheet
China (mainland) Pangquangou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qagan Nur site factsheet
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qingdao-Rizhao coastal wetland and islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qingtongxia reservoir and Yellow River wetlands in Zhongning and Zhongwei site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Saihan Ul Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui) site factsheet
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Jiangsu) site factsheet
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong site factsheet
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulgai site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Wafangdian Fuzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yinchuan plain site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yunfeng Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta site factsheet
Mongolia Achit Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Airag Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Airkhan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Buir Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Bulgan River site factsheet
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers site factsheet
Mongolia Ganga Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Nomrog site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Orog Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Shaazan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Sharga Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Telmen Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uureg Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake site factsheet
North Korea Amrok River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Chongdan field site factsheet
North Korea Kumya Bay site factsheet
North Korea Lake Kwangpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Samilpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
North Korea Ongjin Bay site factsheet
North Korea Orangchon River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Panmun field site factsheet
North Korea Taedong River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nikolaya bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Trekhozerki lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ul'banskiy bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Gyeongpo-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
Turkmenistan Nargyz site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  
Food - human - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anser cygnoid. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,170,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species