email a friend
printable version
LC
Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 28,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.180,000-1,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant      
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Ghana Native Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Laos Native Extant      
Lesotho Native Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Oman Native Extant   Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant      
Rwanda Native Extant      
Senegal Native Extant      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes  
USA Vagrant Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Yemen Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Zambia Native Extant Yes    
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Gwydir Wetlands site factsheet
Australia Macquarie Marshes site factsheet
Cambodia Veal Srongae site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuchishan Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
Indonesia Dataran Banjir Ogan Komering site factsheet
Kenya Tana River Delta site factsheet
Mali Koumbé Niasso site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Philippines Buguey wetlands site factsheet
Sri Lanka Muturajawela site factsheet
Thailand Lower Central Basin site factsheet
Thailand Sanambin site factsheet
Uganda Kibimba Rice Scheme site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1450 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / plant (Mimosa pigra) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / plant (Salvinia molesta) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Seepage from mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, decorations, curios Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Mesophoyx intermedia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Ardeidae (Herons and egrets)
Species name author (Wagler, 1829)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 27,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions