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Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 114,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 427,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 251-1000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population was estimated to number c.2,600-3,400 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,700-2,300 mature individuals, based on recent records and surveys (BirdLife International 2001). However, this is thought to be an underestimate, as the number in China alone is estimated at c.1,000 mature individuals and could be around 1,500-2,000 mature individuals (Xiaolin Chen et al. in litt. 2012). On this basis, the population is placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, which is probably equivalent to 3,800-15,000 individuals, assuming that mature individuals account for around 2/3 of the population.
Trend justification: Surveys of a breeding population on an offshore island in southern China indicate a decline of 22% over six years (Xiaolin Chen et al. in litt. 2012). There is little additional evidence for a significant decline in this species's population over the last ten years, although overall some decline (<20% over ten years) is suspected to be occurring, owing to on-going loss and degradation of available habitat through reclamation, especially of offshore breeding islands.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Brunei Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant     Yes  
Indonesia Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant   Yes    
Macao (China) Unknown Extant     Yes  
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Singapore Native Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant Yes      
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes    
Thailand Native Extant   Yes    
USA Vagrant Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Brunei Brunei Bay site factsheet
Brunei Seria Coast site factsheet
Brunei Wasan site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Coast between Ao Jiang and Feiyun Jiang site factsheet
China (mainland) Eastern tidal flat of Nanhui site factsheet
China (mainland) Futian site factsheet
China (mainland) Hailü Dao site factsheet
China (mainland) Haimao Dao Island site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laotieshan site factsheet
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanliujiang Hekou site factsheet
China (mainland) Rong Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) She Dao Island site factsheet
China (mainland) Shicheng Dao Island site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Weizhou Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuchishan Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingren Tuo Island site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Indonesia Delta Mahakam site factsheet
Indonesia Kutai site factsheet
Indonesia Morowali site factsheet
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay site factsheet
Malaysia Brunei Bay (Malaysia) site factsheet
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain site factsheet
Malaysia Klias peninsula site factsheet
Malaysia Matang coast site factsheet
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast site factsheet
Malaysia South-west Johor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Daedong Bay site factsheet
North Korea Dok-do island site factsheet
North Korea Kangryong field site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
North Korea Rab-do and Muki-do islands site factsheet
North Korea Sogam-do, Daegam-do, Zung-do, Ae-do and Hyengzedo islands site factsheet
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo site factsheet
Philippines Basilan Natural Biotic Area site factsheet
Philippines Calauit Island site factsheet
Philippines Mactan, Kalawisan and Cansaga Bays site factsheet
Philippines Manila Bay site factsheet
Philippines Mount Makiling Forest Reserve site factsheet
Philippines Olango Island site factsheet
Philippines Pagbilao and Tayabas Bay site factsheet
Philippines Pasonanca Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Polillo Islands site factsheet
Philippines Ragay Gulf site factsheet
Philippines Sibutu and Tumindao Islands site factsheet
Philippines Talibon Protected Landscape and Seascape site factsheet
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park site factsheet
Philippines Victoria and Anepahan Ranges site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Singapore Kranji-Mandai site factsheet
Singapore Ubin-Khatib site factsheet
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Daebu-do island site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Hampyeong Bay site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Muan tidal flat site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yeongheung-do and Sonje-do islands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Chihben Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Chu'an site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Dapingding and Hsutsuo Harbor site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Hsinchu City Coastal Area site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Hualien River Estuary site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Kaomei Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Lanyang River Estuary site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Watzuwei Nature Reserve site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Yieliu site factsheet
Thailand Laem Pakarang site factsheet
Thailand Na Muang Krabi site factsheet
Vietnam Ba Tri site factsheet
Vietnam Bai Boi site factsheet
Vietnam Binh Dai site factsheet
Vietnam Dat Mui site factsheet
Vietnam Nghia Hung site factsheet
Vietnam Thai Thuy site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Wearing apparel, accessories Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Wearing apparel, accessories Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Egretta eulophotes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Ardeidae (Herons)
Species name author (Swinhoe, 1860)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 114,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species