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Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,630,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown Not Applicable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in China and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Algeria Vagrant Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant        
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant        
Cuba Native Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Estonia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Finland Native Extant     Yes  
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes    
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Guam (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Hungary Native Extant   Yes    
Iceland Native Extant        
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant        
Kyrgyzstan Vagrant Extant        
Latvia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Mexico Native Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Norway Native Extant   Yes    
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Romania Native Extant   Yes    
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Serbia Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Vagrant Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Sweden Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart site factsheet
Belgium Krekengebied site factsheet
Canada Aylmer Wildlife Management Area site factsheet
Canada Beaver Lake site factsheet
Canada Big Lake site factsheet
Canada Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area site factsheet
Canada Cumberland Marshes site factsheet
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair site factsheet
Canada Frank Lake (south) site factsheet
Canada Greater Rondeau Area site factsheet
Canada Lesser Slave Lake PP site factsheet
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes site factsheet
Canada Lower Mackenzie River Islands site factsheet
Canada Luck Lake site factsheet
Canada M'Clintock Bay to Lewes River Marsh site factsheet
Canada Mackenzie River Delta site factsheet
Canada Mills Lake site factsheet
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area site factsheet
Canada Pelican Lake site factsheet
Canada Queen Maud Gulf site factsheet
Canada Radisson Lake site factsheet
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands site factsheet
Canada Reed Lake site factsheet
Canada South Shore Great Slave Lake (Slave River Delta to Taltson Bay) site factsheet
Canada Thedford Flats site factsheet
Canada Tobin Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
Denmark Bolle and Try meadows site factsheet
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne site factsheet
Denmark Fiilsø site factsheet
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Nissum Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne site factsheet
Denmark Skjern Å site factsheet
Denmark Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge site factsheet
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning site factsheet
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare site factsheet
Estonia Küdema bay site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Lahepera lake site factsheet
Estonia Lavassaare site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island site factsheet
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla site factsheet
Estonia Pakri site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Peipsi site factsheet
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste site factsheet
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays site factsheet
Estonia Soomaa site factsheet
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Estonia Võrtsjärv site factsheet
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Etang de Lindre site factsheet
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux site factsheet
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient site factsheet
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Ireland Durnesh Lough site factsheet
Ireland Lough Foyle site factsheet
Ireland Lough Gill site factsheet
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough site factsheet
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake site factsheet
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes site factsheet
Ireland Rahasane turlough site factsheet
Ireland River Blackwater callows site factsheet
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon site factsheet
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone site factsheet
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote site factsheet
Ireland Stabannan-Braganstown site factsheet
Ireland Tacumshin lake site factsheet
Ireland The Cull and Killag site factsheet
Japan Hachirogata site factsheet
Japan Hasama river site factsheet
Japan Kyu-Osatsunuma site factsheet
Japan Lake Fukushimagata site factsheet
Japan Lake Hyoko site factsheet
Japan Lake Inawashiro site factsheet
Japan Lake Koetoi-Onuma site factsheet
Japan Lake Kuccharo site factsheet
Japan Lake Nakaumi site factsheet
Japan Lake Sakata site factsheet
Japan Lake Toyanogata site factsheet
Japan Lake Utonai, Yufutu plain site factsheet
Japan Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir site factsheet
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin site factsheet
Japan Mogamigawa estuary site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Netherlands Biesbosch site factsheet
Netherlands De Wilck site factsheet
Netherlands Gelderse Poort site factsheet
Netherlands Grevelingen site factsheet
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop-Ketelmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Drontermeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Veersemeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Wolderwijd site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Zuidlaardermeer and Onnerpolder site factsheet
Netherlands Lauwersmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Polder Arkemheen site factsheet
Netherlands Reeuwijkse Plassen site factsheet
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren-Amerongen site factsheet
Netherlands Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer site factsheet
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk-Waardenburg site factsheet
Netherlands Zwarte Water and Overijsselse Vecht site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Notec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds site factsheet
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bol'shoye and Maloye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lena delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Sayan reservoir (Tuva part) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kanin peninsula (watershed of Yazhma and Nyes' rivers) site factsheet
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay) site factsheet
Russia (European) Unskaya bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Vaygach island site factsheet
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
Sweden Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island site factsheet
Turkey Burdur Lake site factsheet
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir site factsheet
United Kingdom Arun Valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Avon Valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Breydon Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Broadland site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels site factsheet
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain site factsheet
United Kingdom Martin Mere site factsheet
United Kingdom Nene Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Severn Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Walmore Common site factsheet
USA Alligator River Lowlands site factsheet
USA Bear River Bay UT02 site factsheet
USA Central Yukon-Kuskokwim site factsheet
USA Chowan River Bottomlands site factsheet
USA Currituck Marshes - Pine Island site factsheet
USA Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Lake Mattamuskeet - Swan Quarter site factsheet
USA Middle Creek Wildlife Management Area site factsheet
USA Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Pungo - Pocosin Lakes site factsheet
USA Roanoke River Bottomlands site factsheet
USA Saginaw Bay site factsheet
USA Southern Dorchester County site factsheet
USA Upper Naknek River site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra Suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands Suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) Suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Cygnus columbianus. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Ord, 1815)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,630,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment