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Red-legged Cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bde+3bde+4bde;C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2010 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 529,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -
Population justification: The world population has been estimated at 30,000 individuals (E. Frere in litt. 2007).
Trend justification: El Niño-driven declines have drastically reduced Peruvian populations, and the species has shown reported declines of 18% on the Atlantic coast in Argentina. However, the sizeable southern populations appear to be relatively stable (Frere et al. 2004) and hence an overall decline of 20-30% is suspected.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Argentina Native Extant Yes      
Chile Native Extant Yes      
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Peru Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Argentina Comodoro Rivadavia site factsheet
Argentina Confluencia, desembocadura y adyacencias de los ríos Chico y Santa Cruz site factsheet
Argentina Parque Nacional Monte León site factsheet
Argentina Península y Bahía de San Julián site factsheet
Argentina Ría Deseado e islas adyacentes site factsheet
Chile Acantilados de Arica/ Guaneras de Camaraca site factsheet
Chile Cerro Amortojado site factsheet
Chile Estuario de Maullín y Cerro Amortajado site factsheet
Chile Fiordo Pitipalena site factsheet
Chile Guabún site factsheet
Chile Guaneras de Cutipa site factsheet
Chile Isla Chañaral site factsheet
Chile Isla Doña Sebastiana Punta Chocoi y Roqueríos adyacentes site factsheet
Chile Isla Grande de Atacama site factsheet
Chile Isla Maiquillahue site factsheet
Chile Isla Mocha site factsheet
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez site factsheet
Chile Islote Concón site factsheet
Chile Islote Pupuya site factsheet
Chile Islotes Pajaros site factsheet
Chile Monumento Natural Pingüineras de Puñihuil site factsheet
Chile Nigue site factsheet
Chile Patranca Island site factsheet
Chile Playa Hornitos site factsheet
Chile Playa Pilolcura site factsheet
Chile Puaucho site factsheet
Chile Punta Corona site factsheet
Chile Punta Ronca site factsheet
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros site factsheet
Chile Sistema Quetalmahue, Quilo y Mar Brava site factsheet
Peru Isla Pachacámac site factsheet
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas site factsheet
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Nestlings Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax gaimardi. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
Species name author (Lesson & Garnot, 1828)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 529,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species