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LC
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 9350 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,220,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,220,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.180,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant   Yes    
Algeria Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant   Yes    
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Cyprus Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Vagrant Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greece Native Extant   Yes    
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Hungary Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Iceland Native Extant     Yes Yes
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes    
Latvia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes    
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Qatar Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Syria Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tunisia Vagrant Extant        
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay site factsheet
Azerbaijan Aggyol National Park site factsheet
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir) site factsheet
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island site factsheet
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island site factsheet
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit site factsheet
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Bosten Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
China (mainland) Rongcheng Swan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yuncheng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Denmark Bolle and Try meadows site factsheet
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne site factsheet
Denmark Fiilsø site factsheet
Denmark Flyndersø and Stubbergård Lake site factsheet
Denmark Hanstholm Reservation site factsheet
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Holmegård Mose & Porsmose site factsheet
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands) site factsheet
Denmark Lille Vildmose site factsheet
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord site factsheet
Denmark Nissum Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat site factsheet
Denmark Odense Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords site factsheet
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne site factsheet
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge site factsheet
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav site factsheet
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
Denmark Tystrup-Bavelse Søerne site factsheet
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning site factsheet
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord site factsheet
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn site factsheet
Estonia Koigi site factsheet
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Lavassaare site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla site factsheet
Estonia Pakri site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Peipsi site factsheet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa site factsheet
Estonia Soomaa site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Artjärvi wetlands site factsheet
Finland Haapavesi wetlands site factsheet
Finland Karunginjärvi lake site factsheet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests site factsheet
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay site factsheet
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay site factsheet
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes site factsheet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju site factsheet
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago site factsheet
Finland Outokumpu wetlands site factsheet
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira site factsheet
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands site factsheet
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta site factsheet
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands site factsheet
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan site factsheet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira site factsheet
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake site factsheet
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden site factsheet
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi site factsheet
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa site factsheet
Germany Luchgebiet Spaatz-Hohennauen-Witzke site factsheet
Iceland Álftafjördur-Hamarsfjördur site factsheet
Iceland Álftafjördur-Hofsstadavogur site factsheet
Iceland Álftanes-Akrar site factsheet
Iceland Arnarvatnsheidi-Tvídægra site factsheet
Iceland Eyjavatn-Fridmundarvötn site factsheet
Iceland Ferjubakkaflói-Nordurá site factsheet
Iceland Hestgerdislón-Hornafjardarfljót site factsheet
Iceland Hóp-Vatnsdalur site factsheet
Iceland Lónsfjördur site factsheet
Iceland Miklavatn-Skógar site factsheet
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá site factsheet
Iceland Öxarfjördur site factsheet
Iceland Pollengi-Hrosshagavík site factsheet
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn site factsheet
Iceland Sog site factsheet
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur site factsheet
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki site factsheet
Iceland Vetleifsholtsbugar-Thykkvabæjarvatn site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula site factsheet
Ireland Durnesh Lough site factsheet
Ireland Lough Conn and Lough Cullin (including Moy valley) site factsheet
Ireland Lough Derravaragh site factsheet
Ireland Lough Foyle site factsheet
Ireland Lough Gara site factsheet
Ireland Lough Gill site factsheet
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough site factsheet
Ireland Lough Oughter site factsheet
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake site factsheet
Ireland Rahasane turlough site factsheet
Ireland River Blackwater callows site factsheet
Ireland River Foyle: Carrigans and Swilly Burn valleys site factsheet
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon site factsheet
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone site factsheet
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote site factsheet
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries site factsheet
Ireland Stabannan-Braganstown site factsheet
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs site factsheet
Japan Izunuma and nearby lakes site factsheet
Japan Lake Akkeshi, Bekanbeushi marsh site factsheet
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou site factsheet
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin site factsheet
Japan Mogamigawa estuary site factsheet
Japan Mutsu bay site factsheet
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou site factsheet
Japan Shintsutsumi reservoir site factsheet
Japan Tama river site factsheet
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Isei Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Western Issyk Kul Lake site factsheet
Latvia Babite lake site factsheet
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Pape site factsheet
Latvia Satini fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Seda marsh site factsheet
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Svete lower reaches site factsheet
Latvia Tasu lake site factsheet
Latvia Uzava lowland site factsheet
Lithuania Birveta Fish-farm including segments of Dysna River and Birveta River valleys site factsheet
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Lithuania Visbarai fish-farm site factsheet
Lithuania Wetland complex of the Baltoji Voke fish-farm with neighbouring turbary and lake Papis site factsheet
Mongolia Ganga Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgoliin Sangiin Dalai Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tolbo Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Netherlands Gelderse Poort site factsheet
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop-Ketelmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lauwersmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Chongdan field site factsheet
North Korea Kumya Bay site factsheet
North Korea Lake Kwangpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Samilpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
North Korea Taedong River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo site factsheet
Norway Lake Leksdalsvatn site factsheet
Norway Lake Storsjøen site factsheet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset site factsheet
Norway Vorma site factsheet
Poland Barycz river valley site factsheet
Poland Drawa River Site site factsheet
Poland Insko Site site factsheet
Poland Knyszyn Forest site factsheet
Poland Lower Odra river valley site factsheet
Poland Lower Silesia Forests site factsheet
Poland Middle Notec River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Odra River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest site factsheet
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest site factsheet
Poland Odra riverine forests site factsheet
Poland Przemków ponds site factsheet
Poland Puck Bay site factsheet
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir site factsheet
Poland Slowinski National Park site factsheet
Poland Szczecin lagoon site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Poland Upper Narew River Valley site factsheet
Poland Warmia Site site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Poland Wloszczowa Basin site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti site factsheet
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi site factsheet
Romania Ilfov reservoir site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Fundata site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Lake Strachina site factsheet
Romania Lake Taşaul site factsheet
Romania Lake Techirghiol site factsheet
Romania Limanu - Herghelia site factsheet
Romania Măxineni site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Azhabach'ye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kamchatka river mouth area site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtaily lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye site factsheet
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev) site factsheet
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Lacha site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Vyal'ye and adjoining marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Lakes of northern Karelia site factsheet
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river site factsheet
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay) site factsheet
Russia (European) Taman' site factsheet
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system site factsheet
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershed of the Rivers Strelna and Varzuga site factsheet
South Korea Gangjin Bay site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong site factsheet
South Korea Gyeongpo-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Songji-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Upo swamp site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kilsviken site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Lommabukten site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Torslandaviken site factsheet
Sweden Dumme mosse site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Getterön site factsheet
Sweden Lake Hornborgasjön site factsheet
Sweden Lake Laidaure site factsheet
Sweden Lake Limsjön site factsheet
Sweden Lake Östen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Östra Styran site factsheet
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden site factsheet
Sweden Lake Ralången - Hyllingen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Solgen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Tåkern site factsheet
Sweden Lake Tämnaren site factsheet
Sweden Lake Tysslingen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Vendelsjön site factsheet
Sweden Ledskär-Karlholm bay site factsheet
Sweden Muddus site factsheet
Sweden River Dalälven-Håvran site factsheet
Sweden River Helgeån site factsheet
Sweden River Klingavälsån-Lake Krankesjön site factsheet
Sweden River Svartån site factsheet
Sweden River Umeälven delta site factsheet
Sweden Sandemar site factsheet
Sweden Stigfjorden fjord site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Annaghroe, River Blackwater site factsheet
United Kingdom Black Cart site factsheet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Lindisfarne site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg site factsheet
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg site factsheet
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Martin Mere site factsheet
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh site factsheet
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cygnus cygnus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,220,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species