This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a very small population and is restricted to four very small islands, rendering it susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts. If human disturbance or set-netting were shown to cause a population decline or fluctuations in numbers or locations, it would require uplisting to Endangered.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Leucocarbo carunculatus Turbott (1990), Leucocarbo carunculatus carunculatus Turbott (1990)
76 cm. Large, black-and-white cormorant. Black head, hind neck, lower back, rump, uppertail-coverts, all with metallic blue sheen. White underparts. Pink feet. White patches on wings appear as bar when folded. Yellow-orange caruncles above base of bill. Similar spp. Pied cormorant P. varius has white face, neck, black feet, no white patches on wings. Voice Makes little noise at colonies, silent elsewhere.
Nelson, A. 1971. King Shags in the Marlborough Sounds. Notornis 18: 30-37.
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Schuckard, R. 1994. New Zealand King Shag (Leucocarbo carunculatus) on Duffers Reef, Marlborough Sounds. Notornis 41(2): 93-108.
Schuckard, R. 1998. Status of New Zealand King Shag.
Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Lalas, C.; Brown, D. 1998. The diet of New Zealand King Shags Leucocarbo carunculatus in Pelorus Sound. Notornis 45: 129-140.
Taylor, G. A. 2000. Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Schuckard, R. 2006. Population status of the New Zealand King Shag (Leucocarbo carunculatus. Notornis 53(3): 297-307.
Further web sources of information
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J.
Gaze, P., Schuckard, R., Weeber, B.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax carunculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Species name author||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Population size||250-999 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||1 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|