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Campbell Shag Phalacrocorax campbelli

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a very small breeding range which renders it susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts. Population trends are unknown, but are assumed to be more or less stable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Synonym(s)
Leucocarbo campbelli Turbott (1990)

Identification
63 cm. Medium-sized, black-and-white cormorant. Black head, neck, lower back, rump, uppertail-coverts, all with metallic blue sheen. White chin, underparts. Pink feet. White patches on wings appear as bar when folded. Caruncles absent. Voice Male barks during courtship.

Distribution and population
Phalacrocorax campbelli is endemic to Campbell Island, New Zealand, and adjacent offshore islands and stacks. In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs and 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite extended and not synchronous, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Birds usually forage in seas within 10 km of the main island (Taylor 2000).

Population justification
In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs or 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite prolonged and staggered between colonies, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Nevertheless, a more up-to-date population estimate is required for this species.


Trend justification
In the absence of significant known threats, this species's population is suspected to be stable.

Ecology
It nests in inaccessible colonies of up to 150 nests on exposed rocky ledges or in sea caves. The oldest bird known lived for over 13 years (Heather and Robertson 1997).

Threats
Historically, cattle and sheep may have restricted possible expansion of some colonies. Feral cats are believed to have little impact on the species (Taylor 2000), and recent observations and surveys suggest they may have died out on Campbell Island (P. Moore in litt. 1999). Brown rat Rattus norvegicus has recently been eradicated from the island but was thought to have little or no effect on breeding success (Taylor 2000, BBC 2003). The native Brown Skua Catharacta lonnbergi is a predator of eggs (P. Moore in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
The Campbell Island group is a nature reserve and, in 1998, was declared part of a World Heritage Site. Cattle, sheep and rats have been eradicated since the 1980s (P. Moore in litt. 1999, Taylor 2000, BBC 2003). Conservation Actions Proposed
Census the entire breeding population in the next five years and compare to the 1975 census. Turn the World Heritage Site territorial sea (out to 12 nautical miles) into a marine reserve and restrict all fishing (B. Weeber in litt. 2000).

References
BBC. 2003. NZ routs island rats. BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2938612.stm.

Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Taylor, G. A. 2000. Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Moore, P., Weeber, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax campbelli. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Campbell Island shag (Phalacrocorax campbelli) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
Species name author (Filhol, 1878)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species