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Socotra Cormorant Phalacrocorax nigrogularis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2bce+3ce+4bce;B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 220000 medium Estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation 180000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.7 - - -
Population justification: The breeding population is estimated at 110,000 pairs (Jennings 2010).
Trend justification: In the northern population, c.12 colonies have become extinct (Symens et al. 1993, Aspinall 1996, H. King in litt. 2005) since the 1960s, representing a potential decline of up to c.80,000 pairs (c.26% of the subpopulation). In Saudi Arabia, the number of breeding pairs declined by more than 75% during 1980-1992 (Symens et al. 1993). Declines are thought to be continuing due to coastal development, disturbance and marine pollution.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bahrain Native Extant       Yes
Eritrea Native Extant   Yes    
India Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Unknown Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes    
Oman Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant       Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Native Extant   Yes    
Sudan Unknown Extant   Yes    
United Arab Emirates Native Extant       Yes
Yemen Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bahrain Hawar Islands site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sheedvar island site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Duqm site factsheet
Oman Halaaniyaat Islands site factsheet
Oman Hamr an Nafur site factsheet
Oman Jabal Qamar site factsheet
Oman Jazirat Hino site factsheet
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz site factsheet
Oman Khor Mughsayl site factsheet
Oman Musandam islands site factsheet
Qatar Al-Aliyah island site factsheet
Qatar Al-Ashat islands site factsheet
Qatar Shara'awh island site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Ghaghah site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Islands off Sir Bani Yas island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Qarnayn island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Siniyah island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Yasat islands site factsheet
Yemen Islands off Bir Ali site factsheet
Yemen Jabal Ma'alah / Ma'alah Plateau, Socotra site factsheet
Yemen Qishn beach site factsheet
Yemen Ra's Momi and Fikhah, Socotra site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluct Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax nigrogularis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
Species name author Ogilvie-Grant & Forbes, 1899
Population size 220000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species