email a friend
printable version
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 24,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,400,000-2,900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: >c.1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and >c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and >c.10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and possibly c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Australia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Botswana Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes      
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant       Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Guam (to USA) Unknown Extant        
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant   Yes    
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Lesotho Native Extant        
Liberia Vagrant Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant Yes      
Micronesia, Federated States of Vagrant Extant        
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant Yes      
New Zealand Native Extant Yes      
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Norway Native Extant       Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Papua New Guinea Vagrant Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Rwanda Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Singapore Introduced Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
Solomon Islands Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant Yes      
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes    
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes    
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Albania Drini Delta site factsheet
Albania Karavasta Lagoon site factsheet
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar) site factsheet
Australia Lakes Alexandrina and Albert site factsheet
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit site factsheet
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir site factsheet
Bulgaria Island near Gorni Tzibar site factsheet
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv site factsheet
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir site factsheet
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island site factsheet
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir site factsheet
Bulgaria Vardim Island site factsheet
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex site factsheet
Canada Basque Islands and Michaud Point site factsheet
Canada Bird Islands site factsheet
Canada Falaise aux Goélands and pointe de l’Est site factsheet
Canada Harbour Rocks site factsheet
Canada Île Brion site factsheet
Canada Île du Lac site factsheet
Canada Île Shag site factsheet
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie site factsheet
Canada Ingonish Island site factsheet
Canada Margaree Island site factsheet
Canada Northern Head and South Head site factsheet
Canada Portnova Islands site factsheet
Canada Rocher Le Corps Mort site factsheet
Canada Rocks off Fourchu Head site factsheet
Canada The Capes site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksu River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Bosten Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River site factsheet
China (mainland) Hotan Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River site factsheet
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
China (mainland) Qiemo Oasis and Qarqan River site factsheet
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava site factsheet
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds site factsheet
Croatia Poilovlje with Koncanica, Garesnica and Poljana fishponds site factsheet
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave site factsheet
Denmark Hovvig site factsheet
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt site factsheet
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø site factsheet
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland site factsheet
Denmark Lille Vildmose site factsheet
Denmark Maribo lakes site factsheet
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area site factsheet
Denmark Nissum Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor site factsheet
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters site factsheet
Egypt El Malaha site factsheet
Egypt Lake Bardawil site factsheet
Egypt Lake Manzala site factsheet
Egypt Zaranik Protected Area site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin site factsheet
France Basse Vallée de la Durance site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Cap Fagnet site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie site factsheet
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques site factsheet
France Etang de Biguglia site factsheet
France Etang de Thau site factsheet
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos site factsheet
France Etangs Montpellierains site factsheet
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux site factsheet
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance site factsheet
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine site factsheet
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island site factsheet
Greece Epanomi lagoon site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Kalamas delta site factsheet
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island site factsheet
Greece Lake Amvrakia site factsheet
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou) site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lake Mikri Prespa and Lake Megali Prespa site factsheet
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioanninon) site factsheet
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary site factsheet
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Iceland Breidafjördur site factsheet
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iraq Razzaza Lake (Bahr Al Milh) site factsheet
Israel Hefer valley site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon site factsheet
Italy Lake Trasimeno site factsheet
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi site factsheet
Italy Litorale Romano site factsheet
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands site factsheet
Italy Po Delta site factsheet
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana site factsheet
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini site factsheet
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands site factsheet
Italy Ticino river site factsheet
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon site factsheet
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano site factsheet
Italy Venice lagoon site factsheet
Japan Inner Tokyo bay site factsheet
Japan Unoyama site factsheet
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Amangeldy site factsheet
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tortoise Islands site factsheet
Kenya Masinga reservoir site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli site factsheet
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Buir Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tolbo Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section site factsheet
Netherlands De Wieden site factsheet
Netherlands Grevelingen site factsheet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen site factsheet
Netherlands Naardermeer site factsheet
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen site factsheet
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank site factsheet
Netherlands Voornes Duin site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll) site factsheet
Norway Froan site factsheet
Norway Horsvær site factsheet
Norway Humlingsvær site factsheet
Norway Kongsøy site factsheet
Norway Lista wetland system site factsheet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset site factsheet
Norway Nykvåg site factsheet
Norway Øra site factsheet
Norway Sklinna site factsheet
Norway Solvær archipelago site factsheet
Norway Valvær site factsheet
Norway Vega archipelago site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Jiwani Beaches and Dasht Kaur site factsheet
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Poland Delta of the Swina river site factsheet
Poland Puck Bay site factsheet
Poland Szczecin lagoon site factsheet
Poland Vistula Lagoon site factsheet
Portugal Sado estuary site factsheet
Romania Bistreţ site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Blahniţa site factsheet
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Ilfov reservoir site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Romania Vedea - Dunăre site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan) site factsheet
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos site factsheet
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Maly Zhemchuzhny island site factsheet
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Taman' site factsheet
Russia (European) Tyuleni island site factsheet
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters site factsheet
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay site factsheet
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir site factsheet
Spain Cíes islands site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley) site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Lommabukten site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Skälderviken site factsheet
Sweden Gräsö archipelago site factsheet
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Aogu Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Fengshan Reservoir site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Kaoping River site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Kinmen National Park site factsheet
Tanzania Lake Victoria: Bumbire Islands site factsheet
Tanzania Rubondo Island National Park site factsheet
Tunisia Bibane site factsheet
Tunisia Boughrara site factsheet
Tunisia Gourine site factsheet
Tunisia Kerkennah islands site factsheet
Tunisia Lake Tunis (Lake Radès) site factsheet
Turkey Bafa Lake site factsheet
Turkey Bosphorus site factsheet
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta site factsheet
Turkey Gediz Delta site factsheet
Turkey Karkamış site factsheet
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake site factsheet
Turkey Kozlu coast site factsheet
Turkey Küçükçekmece Basin site factsheet
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake) site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Lake site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Turkey Yedikır Reservoir site factsheet
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly site factsheet
Turkmenistan Gorelde site factsheet
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan site factsheet
Turkmenistan Mergen site factsheet
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh site factsheet
Uganda Lutoboka point (Ssese islands) site factsheet
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Cape Martiyan site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Ukraine Dnister delta site factsheet
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar) site factsheet
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Vasylivka village) site factsheet
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays site factsheet
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh site factsheet
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman site factsheet
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough site factsheet
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs site factsheet
United Kingdom Sheep Island site factsheet
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom Ynys Seiriol/Puffin Island site factsheet
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm site factsheet
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax carbo. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 24,600,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment