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LC
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (2200% increase over 40 years, equating to a 120% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Bahamas Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belize Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant     Yes  
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant        
Guatemala Unknown Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Jamaica Vagrant Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Balabas Island site factsheet
Canada Lavalleé Lake site factsheet
Canada Malpeque Bay site factsheet
Canada North Channel Island site factsheet
Canada Pelee Island Archipelago site factsheet
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park site factsheet
Canada South Long Island site factsheet
Canada Suggi Lake site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río site factsheet
Cuba Río Máximo site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax auritus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
Species name author (Lesson, 1831)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species