email a friend
printable version
LC
African Darter Anhinga rufa

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -
Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola Native Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
Comoros Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Egypt Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Ghana Native Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant      
Israel Native Extinct      
Jordan Native Extinct   Yes  
Kenya Native Extant      
Lesotho Native Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Rwanda Native Extant      
Senegal Native Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extinct   Yes  
Tanzania Native Extant Yes    
Turkey Native Extinct Yes    
Uganda Native Extant      
Yemen Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Congo Lake Te'le' Community Reserve site factsheet
Gambia Islands of the Central River Division site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hawizeh site factsheet
Iraq Haur Chubaisah area site factsheet
Somalia Xawaadley reservoir site factsheet
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves site factsheet
South Africa Spitskop Dam site factsheet
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve site factsheet
Tanzania Wembere steppe site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anhinga rufa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anhingidae (Anhingas)
Species name author (Daudin, 1802)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 18,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions