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African Darter Anhinga rufa

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -
Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Angola Native Extant       Yes
Benin Native Extant       Yes
Botswana Native Extant       Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant       Yes
Burundi Native Extant       Yes
Cameroon Native Extant       Yes
Central African Republic Native Extant       Yes
Chad Native Extant       Yes
Comoros Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Congo Native Extant       Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant       Yes
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant       Yes
Egypt Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant       Yes
Eritrea Native Extant       Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant       Yes
Gabon Native Extant       Yes
Gambia Native Extant       Yes
Ghana Native Extant       Yes
Guinea Native Extant       Yes
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extinct       Yes
Jordan Native Extinct   Yes    
Kenya Native Extant       Yes
Lesotho Native Extant       Yes
Liberia Native Extant       Yes
Madagascar Native Extant       Yes
Malawi Native Extant       Yes
Mali Native Extant       Yes
Mauritania Native Extant       Yes
Mozambique Native Extant       Yes
Namibia Native Extant       Yes
Niger Native Extant       Yes
Nigeria Native Extant       Yes
Rwanda Native Extant       Yes
Senegal Native Extant       Yes
Sierra Leone Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant       Yes
South Sudan Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extinct   Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant Yes      
Turkey Native Extinct Yes      
Uganda Native Extant       Yes
Yemen Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Zambia Native Extant       Yes
Zimbabwe Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Congo Lake Télé Community Reserve site factsheet
Gambia Islands of the Central River Division site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Chubaisah area site factsheet
Iraq Hawizeh site factsheet
Somalia Xawaadley reservoir site factsheet
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves site factsheet
South Africa Spitskop Dam site factsheet
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve site factsheet
Tanzania Wembere steppe site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anhinga rufa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anhingidae (Darters)
Species name author (Daudin, 1802)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 18,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change