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Mute Swan Cygnus olor

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.2 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.600,000-610,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: <c.100 breeding pairs and <c.1,000 wintering individuals in China; <c.50 individuals on migration and <c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and c.100-10,000 introduced breeding pairs in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant   Yes  
Australia Introduced Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
Canada Introduced Extant   Yes  
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Egypt Vagrant Extant      
Estonia Native Extant     Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Introduced Extant Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Greece Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant      
Iceland Introduced Extant Yes    
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes  
Latvia Native Extant     Yes
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Libya Vagrant Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Moldova Native Extant     Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant      
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes    
North Korea Native Extant     Yes
Norway Native Extant     Yes
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Serbia Native Extant      
Singapore Introduced Extant Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes
Slovenia Native Extant      
South Africa Introduced Extant      
South Korea Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant   Yes  
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Vagrant Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Introduced Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Yatata site factsheet
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt site factsheet
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord site factsheet
Denmark Odense Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor site factsheet
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne site factsheet
Denmark Saltholm site factsheet
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet site factsheet
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord site factsheet
Estonia Küdema bay site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) site factsheet
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons Istieas site factsheet
Greece Nestou delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Latvia Liepaja lake site factsheet
North Korea Kumya Bay site factsheet
North Korea Lake Kwangpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Samilpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo site factsheet
North Korea Taedong River estuary site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Insko Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Odra river valley site factsheet
Poland Puck Bay site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Poland Vistula Lagoon site factsheet
Romania Argeş reservoir site factsheet
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti site factsheet
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kazachka site factsheet
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Taman' site factsheet
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area site factsheet
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kungsbackafjorden site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake site factsheet
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays site factsheet
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes site factsheet
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Sasyk lake site factsheet
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system site factsheet
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman site factsheet
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cygnus olor. Downloaded from on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species