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LC
Northern Gannet Morus bassanus

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Synonym(s)
Sula bassana Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994), Sula bassana Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993), Sula bassana bassana Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994), Sula bassana bassana Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)

Distribution and population
The Northern Gannet is found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean with small numbers of individuals reaching the equator on the western and eastern side in the south, and reaching Norway in the north. Breeding sites include northern France, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland, Norway and the eastern tip Quebec (Canada) (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Population justification
del Hoyo et al. (1992) estimated the global population to number 526,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 300,000-310,000 breeding pairs, equating to 900,000-930,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 75-94% of the global range, so a revised estimate of the global population size is 950,000-1,200,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification
The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Ecology
This strictly marine species wanders mostly over continental selves, feeding on shoaling pelagic fish which are mostly caught by plunge-diving from large heights. It also attends trawlers and will form large congregations where food is plentiful. Breeding is highly seasonal starting between March and April, usually in large colonies on cliffs and offshore islands, but also sometimes on the mainland. Young birds will migrate to the extreme south of its range, whereas adults range less extensively but still regularly winter in the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

References
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Morus bassanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Gannet (Morus bassanus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Sulidae (Gannets and boobies)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 20,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species