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Colombian Grebe Podiceps andinus

Justification
This species was only known from Lake Tota, Colombia. It was last recorded in 1977 and is now Extinct as a result of human-induced changes to the lake, with intensive searches in 1981 failing to find it.

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened birds of the world, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Taxonomic note
The taxon has occasionally been considered a subspecies of Black-necked Grebe P. nigricollis3.

Distribution and population
Podiceps andinus was restricted to the Bogotá wetlands at c.2,600 m in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. It is known from 18 or 19 specimens collected between 1939-1964 (Fjeldså 1993). The species was still abundant on Lake Tota in 1945 (Borrero 1947), but numbers crashed in the 1950s due to various factors and the last confirmed record was in 1977. Because intensive studies in 1981 (Fjeldså 1993) and 1982 (Varty et al. 1985) failed to find the species, it is now considered Extinct (Collar et al. 1994).

Ecology
It inhabited freshwater wetlands, including reed-fringed pools and lakes.

Threats
It declined as a combined result of wetland drainage, siltation, pesticide pollution, disruption by reed harvesting, hunting and predation by introduced rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri (Fjeldså 1993).

References
Borrero, J. I. 1947. Aves ocasionales en la sabana de Bogotá y las lagunas de Fúquene y Tota. Caldasia 4: 491-498.

Collar, N. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Stattersfield, A. J. 1994. Birds to watch 2: the world list of threatened birds. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Fjeldså, J. 1993. The decline and probable extinction of the Colombian Grebe Podiceps andinus. Bird Conservation International 3: 221-234.

Varty, N.; Adams, J.; Espin, P.; Hambler, C. 1986. An ornithological survey of Lake Tota, Colombia, 1982. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Brooks, T., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Podiceps andinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Extinct
Family Podicipedidae (Grebes)
Species name author (Meyer De Schauensee, 1959)
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species